1068. - Lonely, helpless, - alas! - I did not cross the great stream; of-seeing, with whose help I also overcome by the waves?
1069. - Consciously focus on the theme of absence, based on the fact that "Nothing", you will cross the stream, discarding the sensual pleasures, refraining from talking, day and night watch for the cessation of addiction (tanha).
1070. - Those who have fallen away from all passion for sensual pleasures, who relies on the absence of, conscious of the sublime joy of freedom rest, - if he dies in his life, or going to continue?
1071. - In the room faded to all sensual pleasures, who relies on the absence, the one immersed in the joy of the sublime freedom does not extend this to continue?
1072. - If he is not continuing in the future many years, if he becomes calm and quite liberated, is whether his consciousness?
1073. - As flames zatushennoe gust of wind, there is much more, and sage, released from the body disappears, and we can not say that that wise man was still somewhere.
1074. - Did he just vanished away, or does it not exist anywhere, or is it just forever free from suffering? Tell me, O wise man, the deep knowledge, for Eternal Dharma knowing you!
1075. - Who walked away from the fact there is no criterion (pamana), in which one could say this - for him, such a criterion does not exist. When destroyed all phenomena, destroyed, and all the ways described.
5.10 "Kappa-Manava puchchha"
("Questions of Kappa")
1091. - Who - as the person listed in the rapid passage of the depth of the river, - captured here by death and destruction, there is an island for him, on a glorious, tell me - is there a refuge where no one before him dohlynet no suffering?
1092. - For those who like entered into the midst of turbulent flow of the river, captured here by death and destruction - yet there is an island of salvation, and of him I will tell you:
1093. that incomparable island, where does not own, where nothing is hungry, I call Nibbana, the destruction of death and destruction;
1094. who knows it, he zamolknet in meditation and delight, he passed, uzrevshi truth never abide by it seduction of Mary, would never give him guidance.
Three months after the Buddha's parinirvana his students gathered to play up every word and save every episode from the life of his teacher. This collection, called Sangeeta, came at a time One family "summer otpesheniya" (settled ppebyvaniya Sangha in Quaternary of the rainy season). In European literature it is called the first Buddhist cathedral (supposedly dating: 544 or 480 BC
Ha this Sangeeta, who gathered in Rajagriha, near Magadha, five hundred monks aphatov headed by Kasyapa (Kassapa). Fell, the oldest of the then living disciples of the Buddha was asked to repeat the laws and rules of conduct for monks, Kasyapa as the scientist with all his disciples of the Buddha - to present metaphysical views Sugata, a favorite disciple of the Buddha Ananda - repeat the parables and stories of the Buddha, the Blessed One who expounded during his travels . Not surprisingly, most of the sutras begin with the words "evam me sutam" - "So I heard." Thus was formed the three parts of the Buddha Dharma: disciplinary (Vinaya), philosophical (Abhidharma) and narrative (Sutra).
A hundred years after Buddha was called papinipvany Second Council of Vaishali (on other dating - in the year 367 BC). The meeting discussed the controversial issues of wine. Then occurred the first schism of the Sangha and the school has moved away from Mahasanghika common tradition. The reason was the opposition to take Mahasanghiki Sutpy and wine as the undisputed authority. This split that marked the beginning of the movement, which later turned into Mahayana Buddhism.
Over time, the Buddha's teachings handed down orally from teacher to student. As stated in one of the Buddhist scriptures, "the text of three Pitaka and comments to him wisest bhikkhus in the past handed down orally, but when they saw that people fall (of orthodox teaching), bhikkhus gathered together, and, wanting to preserve the original teachings, recorded in their books ". This process was not fast.
In 244 BC in the Mauryan dynasty Pataliputpe impepatop Ashoka convened the third council, where discussions on controversial issues is another split, and in particular, is separated Sarvastivada school. The most orthodox school is vibhadzhayavada, because of it then there is Theravada. Despite intense debate, this is the Sangita was created that kind of Buddhist canon, which he has to this day.
After three years, Ashoka sent his son, the venerable Mahinda, on Shpi Lanka, that he brought the Buddha's teaching there. The sermon was a success and Mahinda ppavitel ostpova Devanampiya Tissa embraced Buddhism. In the next few years Mahinda bases in Sri Lanka Mahavihapu (Great monastyp) in Anupadhapupe. His congregation became known as theravadiny (from "Thera" Elder, "Theravada" - the teaching of elders). Then come to the island sestpa Mahinda - Sanghamitta and founds women's community. Sanghamitta brings with him the greatest sanctuary - an escape of the Bodhi tree. This escape survives, and is currently in Sri Lanka a few trees growing on it, the leaves of these trees pilgrims keep as a treasure. In several countries of the Buddhist world are trees grown from the shoots of the tree to Sri Lanka.
In 100 or 80 BC Sri Lanka devastated hunger. This reason, as well as some internal, occurring in most Sangha, encouraged the king of the island Vattagamani order to write the word of Buddha. According to Buddhist sources, it carried five hundred monks and scribes of Mahavihary: they write text on palm leaves, which are then rolled up and put in the basket. According to legend, the record of each section of the Doctrine fit exactly into one basket - Pitaka. Hence the name of the Canon - the Tripitaka, or "Three Baskets"; sections, respectively, received the name of Sutra Pitaka-, Vinaya Pitaka and the Abhidharma-Pitaka-.
The text of the Canon was written in Pali, the spoken language of India, the classical Indian language Sanskrit literary texts were translated later. Strictly speaking, the Pali Canon is not the "Tripitaka" (Sanskrit), and the "Tipitaka", just as in Pali will be no "Sutra", and "Sutta", not "Abhidharma", and "Abhidhamma", not "nirvana" and "Nibbana" and so on. But in this book, we will, as much as possible, stick to writing Sanskrit, Sanskrit played a role as a sort of "Buddhism in Latin." Pali spelling, we will leave only a few cases, such as the name of the "Dhammapada".
Vinaya Pitaka, devoted to the monastic discipline. This set of rules that the monks should be guided in their personal lives ("pratimoksha" in Pali - "Pratimokha"), as well as rules relating to the life of the community.
According to legend, there was at first the Sangha harmoniously without any rules. But the more it became monks and nuns, the more complicated the community, so that the Buddha had to point the monks on their mistakes - and enter the appropriate rule to keep members of the Sangha from such mistakes in future. Usually in such cases, the Buddha said: "It is unsuitable, it is not necessary, it is not ... The correct How could you nepazumny man, a monk otppavivshis under this Dhapmy's guide and wine, set out hoposho, sovepshit ppostupok this? ... Hepazumny man, this is not good ppinosit nevepuyuschim and does not increase the number of vepuyuschih and vpedit and nevepuyuschim and vepuyuschim, and makes SOME doubt. "
There were 253 regulations are established for the bhikkhus, 311 for Bhikshuni. Severity of punishment for offenses differ greatly from pposto ppiznaniya his guilt (if the monk behaves disrespectfully) to expulsion from the Sangha neobpatimogo (if a monk kills a person).
The severity of the maintenance of monastic rules was that force, thanks to Buddha's teachings which lasted throughout the centuries of Buddhism. The Buddha himself called his doctrine is not simply "Dharma", but "the Dharma-Vinaya", stressing that without strict discipline spiritual path is not possible.
The composition of the Vinaya Pitaka and the other two as follows.
Vinaya Pitaka, divided into four sections.
. Full nabop a rule of the Sangha, with istopiyu ppoishozhdeniya each of them. These regulations are summarized in "Patimokshe," their number - 227 for the bhikkhus, 311 for Bhikshuni. Regulations are Patimokkhi pazdelyayutsya several concurrent groups: papadzhika (regulations are entailing expulsion from the Sangha), sanghadishesha (regulations are entailing pepvonachalnoe and subsequent sobpaniya Sangha), aniyata (neoppedelennye regulations are) nissaggiya pachittiya (regulations are giving rise to forfeiture and confession), pachittiya (regulations are entailing confession) patideshaniya (regulations are entailing ppiznanie) sekhiya (regulations are learning), adhikapana samatha (regulations are settling spopov).
II. Khandhaka (Mahavagga).
Several similar to sutpy texts, including periods of Buddha passkaz spazu after his Ppobuzhdeniya his subintrusive ppopovedi of groups of five monks, and istopiyu how SOME of the great disciples of the Buddha entered the Sangha and themselves attained Ppobuzhdeniya. It also includes regulations are dedication, reading aloud and postseismic Patimokshi window procedure, kotopye monks should perform in the Quaternary fopmalnyh sobpany Sangha.
III. Khandhaka (Chulavagga).
This describes the regulations are SyMon podpobno and window procedure for pazbopa sepeznyh ppostupkov in the Sangha. It also included the establishment of the Sangha istopiyu Bhikshuni, and descriptions of earliest event and second type of barometer Sobopa.
Summarize pezyume ppedyduschih an Area, vaulted rule, and klassifitsipovannyh sistematizipovannyh postseismic ways for training purposes.
Sutra Pitaka, divided into five sections.
I. Digha Hikaya.
The "long" tpaktatov consists of 34 sutp including hoposho famous "Mahasatipatthana sutpu" ("Big tpaktat the basics of mindfulness"), "Samannyaphala sutpu" ("The fruit sozeptsatelnoy life"), "Mahapapinibbana sutpu" (about the last days of the Buddha) and d.puguyu.
II. Maddzhhima Hikaya.
The "tpaktatov s.pedney length" consists of 152 of varying lengths sutp, including "Sabbasava sutpu" ("All popoki"), "Chulakammavibhanga sutpu" ("summarize the summary kapmy"), "Anapanasati sutpu" ("Awareness of breath"), "Kayagatasati sutpu "(" body awareness ")," Angulimala sutpu "(" istopiyu Angulimaly ") also other.
III. Samyutta Hikaya.
The "sgpuppipovannyh" tpaktatov consists of small sizes of 2889 sutp, sobpannyh topics in 56 recognized groups (samyutt).
IV. Anguttapa Hikaya.
"Section tpaktatov, large factors of one" consists of 8777 sutp summarize, sgpuppipovannyh 11 nipat in accordance with the amount of certain aspects of the Dharma, in this passmatpivaemyh sutpe. For example, in "Eka-nipate" ("Book of units") are about the same time sutpy Dharma, the "Duca nipate" ("Book of twos") are two points of sutpy Dhapmy, and so on.
V. Khuddaka Hikaya.
"Section kopotkih book" consists of 15 books, including the Dhammapada, and Thepagathu Thepigathu (poetry stapshih monks and nuns), the Sutta Hipatu (reproduced in this volume abridged), Jataka (stories of previous incarnations of the Buddha), etc.
Abhidharma Pitaka pazdelyaetsya-seven books, though only the first (Dhammasangani) and last (Patthana) are the essence of the teachings of Abhidhamma.
("Pepechislenie phenomena"). Here are pepechislyayutsya "papamattha dhamma" (absolute pealnosti) within mipe. According to one such systematization is: 52 "chetasika" (factors of the mind), which are, appearing together in the postseismic combinations, cause any of the 89 by different possible "citta" (states of consciousness), then the 4 main physical elements, and 23 events, popozhdaemyh them, and finally - nipvana.
("The Book tpaktatov"). It resumes the analysis, begun in Dhammasangani, but in shape, vopposov and answers.
("Talk in connection with the elements"). Povtopenie ppedyduschego in shape, vopposov and answers.
("Description of the individuals"). Describes several types of personality.
("Spopnye vopposy"). Another vkpaplenie in Abhidhamma: vopposy and answers sobpannye Moggaliputtoy Tisza in tpetem century BC. Oe. to ppoyasnit spopnye times by different schools in the existing order TIME OF.
("The Book of pap"). Logical analysis of many concepts in ppedyduschih representations for books.
("Book of the relationship"). This book has a lot of volume ppevoshodit d.puguyu Tipitaka book describes 24 "pachchaya", or the law of conditionality, the eccentricity interact "Dhamma". These laws, in various ppimenyaemye pepestanovkah to "dhamma" described in Dhammasangani cause all knowable experience.
Mahayana and Nagarjuna
In the first century AD, in Buddhism there are drastic changes. In place of categorical, rigor of early exercise comes greater understanding of the Ways and man's place in it. However, it would be wrong to assume that this was a departure from the teachings of the Buddha, from the standpoint of science, new ideas were development of what is said in ancient texts, from the standpoint of Buddhism itself, everything new was nothing more than hidden for the time being the teachings of Sakyamuni.
Mahayana doctrine was based on a number of ideas and images to be held in early Buddhism, but does not develop in it. First, it was expanded concept of "Bodhisattva." If you originally named as the Buddha in his previous reincarnation, but now the term came to refer to the essence of which reached enlightenment, but vowed not to go to nirvana as long as there is light at least one living creature in need of salvation. Rannemahayanskih of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva note (Padmapani) and Vajrapani, Ajanta frescoes by famous as well as Maitreya, the future Buddha. Then, the group of eight Bodhisattvas, over time the number of bodhisattvas is growing.
Bodhisattva ideal of self-sacrifice expressed in these words that we find in the fragment, quoted by Shantideva in his "Summary of the Buddhist doctrine": "In this world, the bodhisattva is no such jewelry, which he did not give the love of the law. No such test of the body to which he would not dare. Taking innumerable forms, they are helping humanity, and support to those who pray to them. "
The same as stated in the Vimalakirti-nirdeshe, quoted by Shantideva: "They (the bodhisattva) practice of sensual pleasure, they demonstrate the meditation the meditator, they kill Mara and do not let it pass. As the lotus does not exist in the flame, so - show it - the passion and meditation are not compatible. And with this intention they are courtesans, to lead people and caught them on the hook of desire, to adopt them in the wisdom of the Buddha. Sometimes they become peasants, or merchants, or priests, great or humble court - for the good of this world. For the poor, they become an inexhaustible treasure, and, presenting him awakens the thought of Enlightenment. Among those who excessively proud, powerful athletes, they appear, they are looking for transcendent wisdom, which would destroy any pride. When someone tormented by fear, they are ahead of him, they give him protection and prepare for the perception of wisdom. Becoming the five kings of transcendental knowledge, virtuous, wise men, they are instructed in the virtues of all beings in the pursuit of mercy and tenderness. Watching the high priest, who needs the service to him, they are clever servants or slaves, and brought resignation. Whatever they were engaged, they are doing everything possible to make a man committed to the law. "
Invisible, they are always present among the people. Thus, in the Buddhist monasteries of China, they are thought of arriving at religious ceremonies performed by the rector, who presents them, invisibly present, incense, while the entire assembly of monks singing: "Praise be Bodhisattvas, Mahasattvas who have gathered here in great abundance, and countless like sand in the ocean. "
Another new mahayanicheskim principle is bodhicitta - the altruistic aspiration to attain enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings.
Finally, over time, increasing emphasis on the intuitive grasp the truth, integral worldview. The quintessence of this is below the shortest mahayanicheskaya Sutra:
Sutra victorious transcendent wisdom
the mother of all Tathagatas, in one letter
So I once heard: Victory was in Rajagriha Mount Gridhrakute together with a large assembly of monks, bhikkhus, 1250 monks and the great assembly of bodhisattvas. At this time the Victory turned to the Honourable Anand, saying this:
"Ananda, Play, for the benefit and salvation of all sentient beings in this Wisdom Beyond one letter, namely the letter" A "."
So preaching victorious. Venerable Ananda, a large collection of monks, the great assembly of bodhisattvas and the entire universe with all the gods, humans, asuras and gandharvas rejoiced and glorified sermon Triumphant.
One of the most prominent figures of the Mahayana was Nagarjuna. His personality, his biography is shrouded in legends. To say that the unknown years of his life! - According to Buddhist texts, he lived more than five hundred years. According to some scholars, there were two outstanding Nagarjuna, one was a philosopher and lived either in the I-II century ("the disciple Aschvaghoshi"), or in II-III centuries AD, the second was an alchemist and lived around the VI century ("the disciple of Saraha "). On the "second" Nagarjuna is known more than a 'first': his name entered in the chronological list of eighty-four mahasiddhas - Vajrayana teachers. According to Buddhist concepts, it was one man, a philosopher and alchemist, who has lived so long thanks to a miraculous elixir. In Tibetan Canon Tandzhure there are about one hundred and eighty works of Nagarjuna - perhaps not in all areas of knowledge. Outstanding domestic explorer Heritage Nagarjuna VP Androsov offers the most robust, in our view, the approach to the problem of identification of the great teacher: Androsov says that probably was one of Nagarjuna, who centuries after his death, attributed to the new texts, thus raised the authority of new works. Tens or even hundreds of anonymous authors signing their works in his name, and because of this figure was the creator of Madhyamaka truly legendary. In general, the tendency to present a text older than he really was so strong in Buddhism, that some works attributed to the era of Buddha's life!
The second century of our era - a time when India was coming to an end the process of folding epics "Ramayana" and "Mahabharata", where one of the most important places is the concept of avatars, that is the incarnation of God in the human body (most commonly known ten main avatars of Vishnu .) The idea of avatars moved beyond Hinduism and Buddhism have been absorbed, though in somewhat altered form - in the form of a chain of successive reincarnations. Thus, Nagarjuna is considered to be the embodiment of wisdom, Manjushri, the bodhisattva, or, or Dhyani Buddha Amoghasiddhi (about them, see the chapters on Tibet), and then he becomes the starting figure for future incarnations.
With the emergence of the Mahayana is a major shift in the Buddhist sense of personality. If hinayanistskaya literature mostly anonymous, it has mahayanicheskaya their authors, are (a tribute to tradition!) A "return", "hidden" text, or call their essays no more than a commentary. In addition, the emerging new tradition: to present the texts as embedded in the mouth of the great bodhisattvas Manjushri teacher, Maitreya and others.
Nagarjuna's philosophical texts form the basis of Mahayana teachings. However, before analyzing them, it should be noted that the role of philosophy in Buddhism quite markedly different from that assigned to it in European science.
From a Buddhist point of view, there are two ways of knowing. The first - logical knowledge, through which you can more or less accurately describe the world around the person, but no more. The second way - the knowledge of non-discursive, intuitive wisdom, prajna, that is, integral perception, achieved through meditation. Philosophy applies to the first path, and because it plays a role in Buddhism, only an auxiliary discipline in transformation of human beings affected by the passions and the passion, in personality, a subdued and going to the Enlightenment. Bearers of philosophical knowledge was exclusively the monks. In the heyday of Buddhism in India, there were the monasteries, which were at the same time a kind of philosophical faculties or institutions. The most famous were the monastic centers of learning, as Nagardzhunakonda, Nalanda (the most significant of them, it was located near the ancient city of Rajagriha, the capital of Magadha, where Buddha preached often, now it's south of northeastern Indian state of Bihar) and later Vikramashila.
As the great scholar of Buddhist philosophy, EA Torchinov, Buddhist philosophy as understood psihopraktiku where intelligent logical analysis leads to the purification through the understanding of consciousness and in conjunction with the meditation practice - liberation. Buddhist thinkers did not seek the truth, and the path to spiritual freedom.
For the Buddhist philosophy can contribute to the attainment of wisdom, but she can not be wisdom. Mahayanistskie monks first time even had to justify himself for his hinayanistskimi study of philosophy, from ancient times regarded as the "veil of the mind" that prevents the release from the bonds of samsara. However, this does not mean the hard opposition of philosophy and meditation: for example, says that the philosophy of Madhyamaka school is useful for people with a strong sense of self and a strong attachment to the "ego" (as the Madhyamika teaching of emptiness the principle of all dharmas), whereas the Yogacara philosophy is preferable to people, things are bound to the external world (as yogAcAra shows that the properties and qualities we ascribe to the outside world, are actually projections of consciousness). Moreover, there is the view that the Buddhist texts were created in a special psychological state that is close to meditation. The most important principle of Buddhism - the personal experience of meditative exercises, the monks are said to "Majjhima-nick": "We say this or that is not out of respect for the Buddha, but because they themselves admitted, they saw and understood."
This is the fundamental difference between Buddhist schools of philosophy from the ancient Greeks. Ancient philosophy was turned to secular people, though there exist various esoteric traditions that require dedication. Buddhist philosophy, in essence, esoteric in its entirety, it implies not only a meditative perception (in the above quotation states that the monks themselves, "see" teaching), but also the individual transmission from teacher to student. This is called a transmission line or a teacher's tradition. It differs from the ancient relationship of teacher and student is that in European culture, knowledge transfer, and Buddhist - especially the mystical component of teaching.
Buddhist philosophical texts are always polemical, especially in relation to the modern Brahmanism them. Also, the controversy is between the different schools of Buddhist thought. Controversy with Brahmanism enriched both teaching goals were different, but the methods are very similar, and even in opposition Tibetan texts are Buddhist and Hindu practices, up to "Lamrim" Tsonkhapy. The objectives of controversy led to interest in the Buddhist thinkers of the art of oratory and argument, and then logic. Mahayana texts are almost always related to the dispute - the author keeps an internal dialogue with an imaginary opponent.
Controversy of Zion were common in ancient India. However, before the rise of Buddhism, they were mutual brahmanistskih traditions. With the advent of Buddhism, with its increasing popularity in the Ashoka and Kanishka umozrencheskie debates have turned into an event of national importance, because on the one hand, the outcome depended on religious dispute policy of the state, on the other hand, government support for financial assistance became a Buddhist community, devoid of own-source livelihoods (as opposed to the Brahmins, who were paid for the rite). All this together led to the fact that the art of disputation Mahayanists has placed so much emphasis. A few texts specifically devoted to this Nagarjuna.
Traditionally assumed that within Buddhism there were four schools of thought: Hinayana in - Vaibhashika (Sarvastivada) and sautrantika in Mahayana - Madhyamika (shunyavada) and yogAcAra (vidzhnyanavada).
Can not say that the Madhyamika offered some fundamentally new kinds of textual, philosophical activity, its newness as a cultural phenomenon was that the emphasis was placed on public and socially significant disputes with other schools of Buddhism, as well as Hindus. Also, thanks to the Madhyamika went to Mahayana adaptation of ideas of moral and ethical, political and cultural level of the era, as the Madhyamaka directly interacted with the kings (so, the message "Ratnavali" addressed to the king). All this resulted in the rapid spread and growing popularity of this philosophical school.
Madhyamaka - the doctrine of the middle. The idea of "madhyama pratipad" Middle Way, free from the two extremes (of luxury and asceticism exhausting) was, as we know, expressed by the Buddha himself. In the philosophical aspect of the middle - this is freedom from both nihilism (the view that no phenomenon has no ontological status), and from eternalism (belief in the existence of an absolute God, immortal soul, and the like). The main assertion of Madhyamaka is reduced to the fact that everything (all dharma) "empty", that is devoid of "own nature" (svabhava), their existence is the result of cause and effect of law. Regardless of cause and effect there is nothing, only emptiness, Sunyata. This is the "median view." That word "void" and gave the second name of the school: shunyavada - doctrine (vada) of emptiness (Shunya).
According to the teachings of Madhyamaka, peace, people, human consciousness are hollow nature, because they are based on the principle of dependent arising of things and events ("pratitya-samutpada"). The world around us - an illusion, that is relative and changeable. Of course, recognition of this statement did not imply denial of the literal events of the external world and internal world, the human - is denied only their original.
In other words, Madhyamaka really is not invoked reasons and does not depend on something else. All the elements of life are interrelated and therefore unreal. In reality, only the One, which is incomprehensible from the outside, inexpressibly words and concepts, nemnozhestvenno. If the Hinayana existence due to splits and unconditional reality, the Mahayana, they merge into a higher unity of relativity. The term shunya, Emptiness is not in any way does not mean non-existence, but only a relative existence: "We are relativists, we do not negativisty," wrote prominent disciple of Nagarjuna Chandrakirti. Relativity - is the middle way approach to reality. Madhyamaka denies not the reality, and the doctrine of her.
Nagarjuna denies the existence of absolute hinayanistskogo faded Buddha as an eternal lifeless substance, correlating with the flow of existence, and therefore devoid of absolute being. The true Buddha is identical with Nirvana, in fact, it is identical with the universe, millions of creatures to be considered having Buddha-nature that is inherent in their ability to achieve enlightenment. By definition, the outstanding national Buddhologist FI Th.I.Stcherbatsky, "The Buddha has no reality outside the universe and the universe has no reality outside of Buddha."
The idea of illusion permeates all of the visible world Buddhist teachings from the beginning: in the Dhammapada says that enlightened look at the world as a mirage. It also approves and Nagarjuna: "Seeing the world empty, devoid of beginning, middle and end, is not established and not have arisen, they shall understand correctly the meaning of life beings." Similarly, the idea pratitya-samutpady, interdependent origination, in fact turns out to be inextricably linked with the second and third Noble Truths of the Buddha, speaking about the cause of human suffering and the possibility of redemption. From the perspective of Buddhism, the Buddha's sermon, addressed to the people, contained a special cases of a more profound sermon on the Mount Buddha said before Gridhrakute arhats, bodhisattvas and gods, Asuras, Gandharvas and other creatures. These things are naked - half people-poluzmei, hidden wisdom keepers. According to legend, it is recorded naked and Mahayana Sutra of the future hidden texts in their underwater palaces. They got the texts and Nagarjuna.
The very name of "Nagarjuna" is deeply symbolic. The main root here - "Naga". This could add root root "Arjun", "ahvaya", "Bodhi" and others, with the thought that meaning does not change the name, the name is an indication of the same person (the practice was widespread). Connection with the cult image of the sage Nagas, revered in India with the highest antiquity, was administered in the range of all-India Madhyamika ritual-religious beliefs. Similar functions and is the second component of the name - "Arjuna", This is one of the names of the Indian God of Thunder Indra's the name of one of the greatest heroes of the "Mahabharata" (recall that the process of completing the formation of the great epic of the most likely accounted for the lifetime of the Buddhist philosopher). Communication with the image of the founder of the Madhyamaka "Mahabharata" is reinforced by the fact that, according to the saga, the first two were wives of Arjuna's wife Nagaraj (Naga rulers).
Moreover, "mahanaga", "Great Serpent" - a kind of Buddhism in the title of people who have reached a high spiritual level, freed from the sins and passions, and endowed with greater moral force than an Arhat. So it is possible that "Nagarjuna" - not a proper name, but a sign of high spiritual status and number of persons could be denoted by the word.
Apparently, a means of promoting the teachings was not only the sanctification of the name of the founder, but also giving his Life of mythological folk devil. The legendary biography of the great sage in general terms as follows.
Nagarjuna was a Brahmin from South India. In his youth he studied with a Hindu yogi art to become invisible. Young son of a brahmana and his friends used this ability to penetrate into the royal harem, but he soon caught and executed the king of them all, except for Nagarjuna. He was so shaken by the death of his comrades, he immediately turned away from attachment to sensual pleasures, became a Buddhist monk, having gone north to the famous monastery of Nalanda. However, he found that the sutras, though deep in thought, in perfect logical sense. And then he set out to become the founder of a new religion, and even invented new promises and new clothes for their students. However, in meditation, he attained a vision that has determined his philosophical doctrine.
He saw a stupa, surrounded by Buddhas and bodhisattvas. Nagarjuna got inside and saw a stupa inside another one, exactly the same. Then he decided to find the very first, original, stupa. He opened the second stupa inside and saw the same third, in it - the fourth and so on to infinity. And then he realized that no first stupa, in other words, primordial, there can be. Realizing this, Nagarjuna was able to acquire miraculous powers, through which he entered the palace of the Nagas, then returned with the precious books in Nalanda.
There are several versions of Nagarjuna's life care. According to one, a Brahmin who has magical powers, called Nagarjuna in the match. Brahman has created a wonderful pond in the middle of which grew a pure lotus, and sat on it, laughing at Nagarjuna. Nagarjuna then created a white elephant with six tusks, and he trampled on a lotus, a Brahmin, wounding in the thigh, threw on the shore. Acknowledged the superiority of enemy disgraced Mahayana, Nagarjuna, and then asked him: "I'm glad if you what took me so long sojourn on earth?". He replied that it was he did not like it. Nagarjuna then retired to his chambers and no longer come out, and when his pupil broke the door, flew out of the chambers butterfly.
According to another version, no one was destined to live the king as much and Nagarjuna. Then the king's son, wanting to ascend the throne, went to the great philosopher and asked that he died.
Such a strange version of Nagarjuna's death illustrate the idea of selfless giving, the first of six pairs. For the first time such motifs are found in the Jataka, which tells the story repeatedly, as a future Buddha sacrificed his body hungry creatures. This gift is evaluated on its own, outside the criteria of virtue and expediency. That's unconditional gift should be appropriate to Bodhisattva. At the same time differentiates the Bodhisattva and disinterested act: for example, about Nagarjuna said that he had invented an elixir of immortality, but it does not tie back to life. They are not motivated by no desire to. Suicide - this is stupid and senseless act for the common man, but for someone who has lost the desire and neutralized the actions, making them devoid of karmic consequences, suicide is justified. Noble philosopher, having completed his earthly existence, breaks the last link with samsara.
Unselfishness of giving is one of the most important aspects of Mahayana ethics: only when Buddhist refuses to action for myself, it works only for the sake of exercise - and only does so for the benefit of themselves.
Thanks to his wisdom, Nagarjuna became the abbot (or more accurately should have said - the rector) of Nalanda. When the guru was advanced in years, the king, who ruled in his homeland, has invited the famous philosopher to return. Nagarjuna arrived - and the king built for his new monastery, which later was named Nagardzhunakonda (its ruins are preserved to this day). For the king's son Nagarjuna wrote a treatise "Ratnavali" ("Precious beads"). This text, in addition to the philosophical values, and has a value of sociology, because, as already mentioned, the philosophy was considered discipline for the monks ("wearing yellow garments"), rather than the laity ("wearing white robes"). Thus, the fourth of five chapters of this treatise described the Buddhist concept of royal authority and provides practical advice to the king, he must rule on the basis of the first three of the six pairs, that is, the perfections - generosity, morality, and patience. The final chapter draws a parallel between the monarch and the bodhisattva, the first represents the perfection of worldly power, the second - a spiritual awakening.
Among other texts of Nagarjuna (this they attributed to him about two hundred, and most in the mid-first millennium AD) is a central place "Mula Madhyamaka-CARICOM" ("Ctihi, fundamental to the doctrine of middle path"). This treatise reveals the doctrine of the Void to the fullest.
According to the teachings of Madhyamaka, the soul as the absolute substance is absent, since the spiritual and psychic phenomena of human consciousness is completely dependent on external events, and they, in turn, are a consequence of their causes. Hence the thesis of the unreality of the personality and soul as imperishable and samozavershennoy. Similarly, we prove the relativity of all categories, which are accustomed to call the absolute. In one of the texts of Nagarjuna said: "Although in terms of the ultimate reality the imperishable soul there, ordinary people primyslivayut eternal principle, but intuitively aware of the duality of joy and suffering." But this is far from Nagarjuna nihilism: "To transcend the duality of being and nothingness - thus gain unmatched condition, but that does not mean to deny knowledge of the object and to deny that there is something and nothing, deny the unity and multiplicity, and to deny support, evidence and postigaemost mind "- that is, he recognizes the existence of such notions as good and evil, unity and variety, truth and lies, but as a relative, only at the level of ordinary consciousness, not familiar with the intricacies of philosophy. Enlightened can use them in everyday speech, but only because they "know Zakonouchenie in depth the common people very hard."
In relation to other philosophical schools of Madhyamaka function - especially critical. Nagarjuna seeks to disprove all possible metaphysical theories as having no relation to actual reality. However, it did not connected with agnosticism or skepticism: Madhyamaka believe that reality as it is comprehensible yogic insight (prajna, Prajnaparamita), but is not available discursive thinking, which manifests itself in linguistic forms, which are only suitable for describing our understanding of the true reality, not herself.
As already mentioned, all the teachings of Nagarjuna, based on the principle of cause and origin dependent (pratitya samutpada). "Like gold, mixed with copper, is not present, as well as self-existent, when it is not necessary conditions. If it comes from the environment, it is not self-existent now." Everything exists only insofar as it is causal, and there is nothing (no dharma), it would not be so. This means that nothing (no dharma) has no svoebytiem (svabhava), then there is no such entity, which would have existed by itself, by its own nature. "For example, a positive self-existent dharmas favorable occurs regardless of what else. The same is assumed relatively poor and uncertain. But then there is no religious practice. How much? Because at this position denies the Dependent Origination. For Bhagavan said," Oh monks, who sees Dependent Origination, he sees Zakonouchenie. And because of the lack of vision of the Law is no practice of religious life. Or again, because of the denial of dependent origination is denied the cause of suffering. For the Dependent Origination is the cause of suffering. Because of the reasons for denying the suffering of suffering is denied. Because of the denial of suffering is denied the cessation of suffering. Because of the denial of the Cessation of Suffering is denied Way. For if there is no cessation of suffering, the attainment of which will be a path leading to the cessation of suffering? Thus, there is the Four Noble Truths. And because of their lack of practice there is no religious life "(" Vigraha-vyavartani ").
So, all dharmas are empty, or, in the original language, they nayratmya (selflessness, bessuschnostny, "devoid of" I ""). This complements the Abhidharma teachings of Nagarjuna: the principle pudgala nayratmya ("selflessness of identity") expands to the universal dharma nayratmya ("selflessness of dharmas"). As stated in the "Heart Sutra Prajna-paramitas": "For all dharmas emptiness - an essential feature of their total. They are not born and not dying, not dirty and not cleaned, do not grow or shrink, "in other words, the only sign of dharma - their ineffability and neverbalizuemost (ineffability of the word) - animitta.
Once all causally conditioned, Self-Subsisting did not, because being is not borrowed true being, just as the borrowed money is not real wealth: Of course, the poor man can borrow a lot of gold and behave as if the rich, but it will only visibility. The same appearances and is being something else. No absolute no God, and the phenomena themselves are responsible for the existence of infinitely each other.
So, in that: "What is the disadvantage the idea of God the creator? He creates other, arising or having arisen himself? If we assume that there emerged himself, he seems unable to create any others. Why? By the nature of what is not itself produced. For example, can not cultivate the land barren woman's son. The same is the case with God the creator. If we assume that he is doing other, emerging himself - the question then becomes, by virtue of which it arose? Whether from himself or from another, or from both (self and other) together? In fact, can not arise from itself, because the birth itself contrary to experience. For the wrong that can cut a sword blade itself, let even extremely sharp. For false that can dance even well-trained, skilled dancer, standing on their own shoulders. But is this ever heard of, unless it can be assumed to be born by themselves, be a parent yourself? We can assume that he is descended from another. But this is impossible, because it has not, if there is no creator God. If we assume that the other is, then get the serial number of occurrence. If something exists and has no beginning, then its existence can not stop. The lack of seed means the absence of germ , stem, leaves, flowers, fruit. Similarly, it is impossible the emergence of another, and from both (self and other) together as a result of erroneous and logical corruption of such assumptions. Therefore, God the creator exists. "
Emptiness itself is not a metaphysical principle, it is only privation inherent existence. That is why "the one who creates a special position on the doctrine of emptiness is the worst error." However, there is Sunyata tathata, the emptiness of phenomena as they are the only essential feature is the fact that there is. According to Nagarjuna, any attempt to establish an adequate system of metaphysical reality is doomed to failure because we are assuming that describe the existence, in fact, only fix our ideas about it. We are sticking to the reality of labels, and then make them learn, taking them for reality itself.
In his writings of Nagarjuna uses a kind of negative dialectic, known as "prasanga" ("negative reasoning").
In the "Mula Madhyamika-CARICOM" Nagarjuna examines and rejects the categories of causality, motion, time, space, quantity, and many others. For example, as Nagarjuna shows incorrect category "time." What is time? It's past, present and future. However, it is clear that none of these measurements did not have "inherent existence", they exist only relative to each other, completely identify each other: the concept of "past" is only meaningful for the future and the present and future - about the past and present, and the present - about past and future. But the past is gone. Future - yet. Where then is the present? Where the very moment between past and future, which is called "life"? It's supposedly a real "now" exists on two illusions - what is not, and what has not.
So, although there are empirical and causality, and time and space, and movement, but as soon as we try to rationally analyze the categories that represent these phenomena, we immediately see that they are all products of our mental activity and totally unsuitable for the description of true reality. Nagarjuna formulated the theory of two truths, or two levels of cognition. The first level of knowledge - the level of empirical reality (sanvritti satya), corresponding to daily practice, where one can speak of a conditional existence of causality, motion, time, space, and the like. This level differs from a pure illusion - dreams, hallucinations, mirages, like "horns of a rabbit." But he is equally an illusion about the level of supreme, truth (satya Paramartha), which is not available for logical thinking, but the incomprehensible forces of yogic intuition.
According to Nagarjuna, Shunya emptiness, the true nature of all things and phenomena, and the identity nirvana, complete extinction of suffering. If the doctrine of nirvana rannebuddiyskom understood as a transcendental state, some can only be achieved through the withdrawal from the world, Nagarjuna calls for the realization of emptiness of the world as the only path to enlightenment. He says, "Mula Madhyamika-CARICOM", "No difference at all between nirvana and samsara ... What is the limit of nirvana is samsara, and the limit between these two is not the slightest shade of difference."