also called Vagishvara ("Lord of Speech") - Bodhisattva transcendent wisdom, which is perceived to enlightenment. From reading the mantra Bodhisattva of Wisdom Buddhist classes begin any science, so she accompanies the monk with his very first steps, even a novice in the monastery.
Manjushri - one of the few bodhisattvas, who is mentioned in the sutras and tantras into. Its specific purpose - to help a Buddhist to understand its own essence and the true nature of all things. According to legend, he eighty-four thousand years ago faithfully served the then Buddha and became a bodhisattva, having vowed not to go into nirvana until all come a thousand Buddhas of this kalpa.
With his mantra Om ARAPACHANA CI: Buddhist starting any intellectual pursuits. Another mantra of the bodhisattva - OM VAGESHVARI MUM.
Here is the text of one of spiritual poems, dedicated to the bodhisattva of wisdom:
I bow to Manjushri, the Buddha of Wisdom!
I bow to my guru and protector Manjushri
Which holds at its heart a sacred text,
symbolizing his vision of things are what they actually
Whose mind is further illuminates like the sun,
does not obstruct or tears with illusions of ignorance,
Who with compassion and love for his father's only child
taught by sixty ways all beings,
inmates in the prison of samsara,
consciousness which overshadowed by the darkness of ignorance and who is afflicted with suffering.
You, like the roar of a dragon whose proclamation of the Dharma
awakens us from our torpor under the rule of wrong views
and frees us from the iron shackles of our karma
You, who holds the sword of wisdom, being cut suffering
wherever it sprouts may appear, scattering the darkness of ignorance,
Thou, whose regal body has one hundred twelve signs Buddha
Who went through all the steps leading to the highest perfection of the bodhisattva
Who was clean from the start -
I bow to thee, O Manjushri!
Radiance of your wisdom, of compassion and
Dispel the darkness, into which entered my mind
Enlighten my intelligence and wisdom,
So I could tend my opinion
in the words of the Buddha and the texts that explain them
Its main sanctuary is located in China's Shanxi province, Mount Wutai in the five-domed. The cult of Manjusri with Wutai Mountain is known in Tibet, a Chinese traveler I-ching, who visited India in the VII century, noted that the sanctuary was then known Wutai Indians. Manjusri cult is especially popular in the eastern regions of Tibet and the Great Reformer of Tibetan Buddhism, Tsongkhapa, originally from Amdo, was under the spiritual patronage of the bodhisattva of transcendental knowledge.
Countless legends about how the Bodhisattva taught famous philosophers. One of these legends tells how the pundit from Benares, named Dharmashri Mitra, the great sage who lived in the monastery Vikramashila could not explain the mystical significance of a sacred formula. Scholar Pandit decided to go to the Bodhisattva Manjushri, because it could explain only one. Travel promised to be very long - at least, the way to the north of the Himalayas. Pandit chose your way through Nepal. During the journey he saw a farmer who was plowing, plow zapryagshi a lion and a tiger. The scientist asked the farmer about the strange way in China, and a farmer said: "Today is too late for you to continue your way, spend the night at my house." Dharmashri followed his advice and went with him. Suddenly the plow and miraculously disappeared from the ground up a large monastery. During the night in the monastery Dharmashri realized that his master was himself a bodhisattva, and in the morning asked him to explain the magic formula, which he did.
This legend is strikingly similar to many Russian stories about St. Nicolet.
Many prominent historical figures of Tibet were considered the embodiment of the Bodhisattva. The first place in importance among these is the Tsonkhapa, among others - Thonmi Sambhota, creator of the Tibetan alphabet, and the lord Trisong Detsen had invited to Tibet by Guru Padmasambhava.
The paintings of Manjushri is portrayed as a boy of sixteen, as the Buddhist wisdom - not the result of years of sophistication and insight, allowing at once to penetrate the essence of being. Such wisdom and liberation from suffering - the same thing.
Manjushri is sometimes portrayed surrounded by his incarnation.
In the center - Manjusri in his usual form, his body is orange-yellow color, which is associated with his name, meaning "glorious splendor" in his right hand he holds a flaming sword, cleaving the darkness of ignorance, on the left - the lotus, which is a book Prajnaparamita Sutra. The throne is surrounded by clouds, in front of him in a dark blue bowl, standing on a lotus, are a mirror, lute, three fruit and sink.
Parivar are four incarnation of Manjushri. Above - sinetely Krishna Manjushri (Manjushri, Black), his hands in a gesture of Turn of the Wheel of the Law, he holds a lotus, which are the sword and book; krasnotely Manjushri Dzhnyanasattva (Wise Essence), holding in his four hands a sword, a lotus with a book, onions and arrow (they are symbols of meditation and wisdom against the inner ego). Below - orange Simhanada Manjusri riding, in line with your name, riding on a lion, his left foot at half-mast from the back of a lion, he holds a sword and a lotus with a book; Belotelov Wrapped-in-leaves of Manjushri, with the same gesture of the hands and Mantle foliage.
Divine essences of Manjushri and Vajrapani are Yamantaka.
Among the bodhisattva Vajrapani occupies a special place - the wrathful Bodhisattva, the personification of the forces that remove the obstacles to enlightenment. His name means "hand holding a vajra." Unlike the other bodhisattvas, he is portrayed in the proportions of Dharmapala, it is without a halo behind him raging flames. He sinetely, its attributes - the vajra in his right hand raised in taradzhni-wise - wise threats (in Hinduism, Shiva is a wise) in the left (as in taradzhni-mudra) - hook and loop for catching souls of sinners. Vajrapani - the only one of wrathful deities, who in the crown is not a skull, symbolizing sins, and the petals, symbolizing the Dhyani-Buddhas. On his hips tiger skin (also shivaistsky attribute associated with yogic practices). The image of a benign form of Vajrapani is extremely rare.
The image of Vajrapani has its roots in antiquity: the spirit of the werewolf-Vedic times and hypostasis thunder of Indra, he becomes the legendary early Buddhism disciple of Sakyamuni, Bodhisattva in Mahayana, Vajrayana and he remained a bodhisattva, and became idam Guhyapati Vajradhara, a personification of the same name of Tantra. Vajrapani is also known as Buddha thousandth of those who will come to the world during the period of the current world. Vajrapani was the King of Shambhala Suchandra which Buddha taught the Kalachakra teachings.
In "Vadzhravidarana-nama-Dharani" says guard the four cardinal appealed to the Buddha, saying that overcomes evil in the world is good, and Vajrapani Bright asked to come up with a means to protect the pure spirit. Then the Bodhisattva and took his wrathful form.
Together with Avalokiteshvara and Manjushri, it forms the basic triad of Lamaism - Compassion, Wisdom and Power. Vajrapani is also considered a person of the wrathful Manjushri.
In the folk beliefs of Vajrapani replaces him thunder (as vajra - it's lightning), he is the lord of rains and the patron of serpent-Nagas, who were among the disciples of the Buddha, and that he gave many teachings of the Enlightened One, who was still too early to open people.
Vajrapani mantra - Om Vajrapani Hum Pe. If a person podverzhn fear, if he is rapidly losing strength, the lama advise him to meditate on Vajrapani, every morning, reading his mantra 108 times. One should visualize the Bodhisattva and imagine what his heart come out of the blue light and nectar, which fill the entire body meditator, and these light and nectar is washed from the body of all fears, all diseases and all bad. All this leaves the person in the form of pus and dirt. Then, reading a mantra, it is necessary to imagine that emanate from the heart of Vajrapani yellow light with nectar, which fill the human body, blessing him. Another mantra of the bodhisattva - Om Vajrapani Hum.
Tibetans call their country "bot" or "The-Boat" (sTod-Bot). The last word means "the upper part of the Land of Snows" and refers to Tibetan province of Tsang and Uy, now known as Central Tibet. In Darjeeling pronunciation of Europeans (North India) and the word became "Tibet."
Scientists argue, akin to whether the word "Dog" name native Tibetan religion, "Bon." But regardless of whether these words come from a common source or not, Tibet without coupons it is impossible to imagine - as well as coupons and free Tibet. This ancient form of paganism Himalayan not only died with the advent of Buddhism, but has transformed itself and has managed to transform Buddhism.
Perhaps the word "bon" comes from the expression "gYung Drung gi-Bon", that is, "say the magical spells." Indeed, the image of the caster nature spirits, dancing the sacred dance, singing and waving a magic spell dagger Purba, is one of the key not only in Beaune, but in rannebuddiyskih Tibetan myths. Spirits in Beaune, as in any other pagan, assumed a great variety. We briefly describe only the main ones. Especially revered celestial spirits - lha (a word meaning simply "spirit"). The fear aroused the spirits of the earth - sabdagi. Spirits were similar to Zahn mischievous gnomes living in caves and climbing on rocks. Most spirits have been hostile to man, they were called drainage, the demons. Propitiate spirits and one other subject was a shaman, Bon-po.
One of the most powerful spirits among the Tibetans were white god of the sky, black goddess of the earth, the Red Tiger and the Raging Dragon. All these deities were then somehow assimilated Buddhist pantheon, or under the influence of their images have become particularly revered Buddhist similar characters. White god of the sky in one of the texts described this way: his mouth was opened, as the fathomless sky, its four tusks as sharp as ice glaciers, among them - the language, which he makes by turning the three worlds tremble, moving ears, it produces a fierce terrifying winds, sweeping with the way all violators of oaths and vows, his nostrils emitted from the storm clouds, from which he sends thunder and lightning, destroying houses, all violators of the law, he hides behind the fence of stones. " In the Buddhist pantheon of white sky-god was identified with Peharom.
On-air and other related mythological character - the first Tibetan king Nato-Tsenpo. According to legend, in the country beating the Queen Zenith, ferocious birds Motshun son, whose body was covered with signs in the form of feathers on all fingers - ear, his eyes were bird and mustache - tiger, eyebrows - from turquoise. According to one version, the son was banished to Tibet, where he was proclaimed ruler (Tsenpo), put on the throne (m) and carried the throne, putting him on the neck (Nya), whence the name of the Nato-Tsenpo. According to another version, he descended from the heavens, where dwell lha - the celestial deities, the ladder or the rope, stepped on the hill Yarlhashampo, and the spirit of this mountain became his patron. Nato-Tsenpo should "open the door to close the doors and lha the graves of the dead", that is to protect the world from the world of the living dead (the same problem in the Buddhist myth of a bodhisattva Manjushri faces, which takes the guise of this terrible Yamantaka). Before the Nato-Tsenpo, Lord of the boundless sky, leaning mountains, trees, closes the crown, his welcome the cranes. He enters the battle with monsters, among them - horrible yak, the spirit of the mountain Yarlhashampo. The image of the Nato-Tsenpo, the King of Birds, partly influenced by the Buddhist perception of the eagle Garuda, which became the symbol of enlightened souls, tearing up, and the gigantic white yak, the enemy king, defeated them and the call for service, becomes the character of the great legends of Guru Padmasambhava and his struggle with the spirits of the Tibetan mountains.
Yak has a special role in life, and in the mythology of the Tibetan people. In terms of life in the mountains of yak - the only possible means of transportation - until the twentieth century, the Tibetans did not know the wheel! Yak can survive in conditions of high, his long thick hair is his protection from the Himalayan cold, and therefore gave the man yak wool, meat and milk, the latter very fat and nutritious. In the semi-nomadic Tibetans have carried their belongings in bales, laden on yak. In particular, why the icons in Tibet began to write on the canvas, to which are attached two rods. These icons are called in Tibetan, "thangka" which means "scroll, banner," and they easily folded if necessary.
The myths of yak is one of the progenitors of the Tibetans. Either this girl, the daughter of the spirit of the mountain, which is the mother of the first man or the spirit of the mountains in the image Yarlhashampo white yak is the widow of the king her husband and she gives birth to a blood clot, which hides in the horn of a yak. Of this horn is born a hero Rulake who teaches Tibetan smelt metals, burn charcoal, domesticated animals, domesticated animals, builds a bridge across mountain river ...
A special place in Tibetan mythology take rays spirits associated with the element of water and often appear in the form of snakes or creatures with the body of the snake heads and a variety of animals. In the mythology of Bon, an important place is occupied by Lumo (Goddess lu) out of her head appears the sky, from the right eye - the moon, from the left - the sun, from the voices of thunder is born, out of breath - the cloud of tears, rain, wind breaks out of his nostrils, her body becomes the earth, and when she closes her eyes - the night comes, opens up - the day etc. Under the influence of Buddhist mythology, where the embodiment of wisdom were naked snake, snake lu also become the embodiment of wisdom, and the volume Bon canon called "lubum," "snake collection." But this lofty and religious interpretation could not eradicate the popular notion of rays as the lord of rain, so that in times of drought to be treated with prayer and, in particular, were in the fields of the book "lubum." Cosmogonic image of the goddess and her entourage Lumo heads with a variety of creatures was partly correlated with the image of Lhamo, Goddess of overriding the Buddhist pantheon Tibet. The very name "Lhamo" - Tibetan and means simply "goddess."
In the Tibetan pantheon of female deities in general, take precedence over the masculine. This is determined not only and not quantitative calculation of how much a role in the ritual practice. Thus, in the practice of Tantra is one of the most important places is occupied by a mystical contact with the dakini, or having the appearance of beautiful maidens, or being with a woman's body and animal head.
The fate of the Bon religion, as is one of the most unique phenomena in the history of human culture. Bon religion as feuded with Buddhism, but rival political forces in Tibet banner was raised that and other religions. However, even the great king of Tibet Trisong Detsen, to whom we owe the fact that Buddhism was finally adopted in the Land of Snows, spoke of the need to maintain both religions, the guru Padmasambhava, according to Buddhist texts, Tibetan winning spirits, brought them to the service of Buddhism.
YN Roerich wrote about Bon, "Bon - is a complex exercise, in which the ancient shamanistic view Mountain Asia combined with beliefs and customs of the people of northwest India. There are two trends in the Bon religion: the first is different forces of nature worship and rituals of shamanism is accompanied, and sometimes sacrifices necromancy (now instead of people sacrificed sheep and goats, as well as images of saints) and the second is a reformed coupons or coupons, adapted to Buddhism ".
The two religions have evolved, influencing each other. The abundance of angry spirits in Bon strongly influenced by the Buddhist pantheon, where there were several class-threatening and menacing calm of the gods. The similarity of images of angry gods of the pantheon of both religions is so great that even the expert did not always distinguish between them. Buddhist mystery Tsam (the phenomenon of the angry gods, symbolically destroying the forces that discourages people to go through the Enlightenment) is very similar to Bon rituals: the rumble of drums and the roar of the pipes spinning llama in huge masks of angry gods (the mask is larger than the head twice, and then four times !). In Tibetan Buddhism, are commonly used attributes of human bones (wind instruments, bowls of skulls) - and this can be explained as the influence of Saivism and borrowing from the bond, where the bloody animal sacrifices practiced for very long. Bon ritual dagger was Purba attribute Hayagriva and other Buddhist deities. Similar examples can be continued.
But the boom under the influence of Buddhism is strongly altered. Bon-clothes looked like on the vestments of the lamas have the Bon monasteries formed the image of the Bon analogue of the Buddha - a great teacher Shenrab Miwo, which states that he lived in the XIX century BC. In a word, borrowed from Buddhism, Bon structure, organization, ceased to be a natural form of paganism.
Unable to answer the question of which of the two religions originated the image of holy land of Shambhala - it exists in both. Here's how to write an outstanding Indian studies and traveler LV Shaposhnikov of Bonpos forced to flee from Tibet to India, "Lokesh Chandra Indian Professor Rimpoche found on the station square in Delhi ragged, hungry and dead tired refugees. Exodus hit Tibetan culture, causing irreparable damage to both the Buddhist monasteries and convents Bon. Now Rimpoche had only a few manuscripts, its own memory and three llamas. They lost ground, but had to first restore porushenny core of culture. And so they worked tirelessly to save what then, in turn, will save them. They did not try then to restore the symbols of the Bon, not thought about the fierce faces of ancient gods or genealogy gone into oblivion sages. They drew the map of Shambhala. Bon codices contain the ancient tradition of Sacred country, inhabited by people, equal to the gods, and great teachers. Tradition numbered many thousands of years, leaving in the mist of the past. They were sure that it is owned by Bon mysteries of this country, and the Buddhists who came later canonized only what has long been known to the priests and wise men of Bon. "
Currently, Bon is considered one of the five schools of Tibetan Buddhism, especially high similarity between him and Nyingmapa
The arrival of Buddhism in Tibet
According to Buddhist chronicles, the Buddha Shakyamuni during his lifetime predicted flowering Doctrine "in a distant northern land" populated at that time, only the demons. Avalokiteshvara, a former student at the time of the Buddha, decided to settle this country people. For this purpose he assumed the form of the king of monkeys Bagrin-on, came to Tibet and became the spouse is a mountain witch Bagrin-mo. Some of their descendants inherited his father's character (they are kind and pious), part - the character of the mother (they are cruel, and unwilling to follow the teachings). This dissimilarity characters spouses grandparents Buddhist historians have explained the many civil wars Tibetans.
YN Roerich wrote in his "Tibetan Buddhism" "The history of Tibetan Buddhism are intertwined with secular history of the country, and it is impossible to speak of one without the other."
Although historically Buddhism came to Tibet only in the middle of VII century, the legend tells of an earlier miraculous event that occurred during the reign of Tsenpo (king) Lhatotori: fell from the sky box, in which there was a small golden stupa, a casket with the mantra om mani padme hum on cover and a few other sacred objects. The king, not knowing their meaning, did not give them honors.
This story illustrates that the rise and fall of Buddhism in Tibet is directly correlated with the religion of the rulers. When the authorities came to the Dalai Lama, the country turned into a theocratic monarchy with a somewhat unusual for a European way of inheritance of power (not to his son, and to reincarnation). But until that time, many centuries the fate of Tibetan Buddhism, was entirely in the hands Tsenpo.
Buddhism strongly changed not only the Tibetan culture, and worldview of the people. In ancient times it was warlike nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes who fought each other and attacked the lands of neighboring nations. Buddhism has put an end to these endless wars in less than two centuries of curbing violent spirit of the Tibetans.
In the history of Tibetan Buddhism there are three main periods:
- Early, about 632-1042 years, corresponding to the imperial era, with a short-lived decline of Buddhism, after 841 years and the gradual spread of teachings by the end of X century;
- The period of the Reformation, 1042-1409 years, while Atisha and Tsonkhapy;
- The period when the dominant school gelukpa from 1409 until 1949, when Tibet was invaded by China.
At the end of the VI - VII century the beginning of the creation of the Tibetan state, previously split into twelve kingdoms, which were engaged in a constant war. Around 607 Namri Songtsen whose lands lay in the valley of the Yarlung in the north-east of Tibet, the Tibetan empire laid the foundation. He conquered the neighboring principality, Phen-yul Valley north of Lhasa, Tsang province, and TARC in Southern Tibet. His son was the famous Srongtsen Gampo (reigned 613-649 years). He turns to Buddhism, pursuing, but not religious, but quite mundane purpose: it was necessary to crush a local to know, who was in league with the ancient religion of Bon. For this it was necessary to inflict a severe blow Bon. Another political reason for seeking Srongtsena Gampo to the Buddha's teaching was that Buddhism in this time spread to all neighboring countries (Nepal, Khotan, Eastern Turkestan, India and China) and was not just a religion but a powerful cultural phenomenon, linking the countries and peoples over ethnic differences.
Srongtsen Gampo invited preachers from India and Nepal, and married a Nepalese princess Bhrikuti, daughter of King Amshuvarmana. She brought with her a few statues, holy books, it came to the monks. Another royal marriage Srongtsen Gampo concluded with China, to woo the Princess Wen Cheng of the Tang Dynasty. That suit, which took a total of several years, surrounded by a mass of folk tales - the testing of stealth ambassador of love between him and Premier Wen Chen, their child, who died on the way to Tibet. Tang princess arrived in Tibet in 641. The main treasure that she brought to Tibet - a huge statue of Buddha, called the Tibetans Jovi. For this statue (and still existing) in 653, four years after the death of Srontsena Gampo, the queen has built in Lhasa Bhrikuti famous Jokhang Temple, for its construction were brought Nepalese master. Chen Wen ordered to build a temple in Lhasa Ramoche, which became the home of Chinese monks, followers of the teachings of Chan. Both spouses Srongtsen Gampo was not just ardent admirers of Buddhism - they did very much for the spread of Buddhism in the Land of Snows, although in his missionary work was necessarily limited circle of courtiers. Not surprisingly, later acknowledged the Tibetans and their incarnation of Green Tara White and Srongtsena Gampo - the incarnation of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara.
Nearly 632 years Srongtsen Gampo sent to India, thirteen young Tibetans, and among them Thonmi Sambhota. Their task was to study Sanskrit and Buddhist texts translated the sacred in Tibetan language. Moreover, they will need to create an alphabet of the native language, which has no written language. Thonmi Sambhota was the only one who has returned home. All the rest have died, unable to withstand humid and hot climate of the Indian plains. In 647, the king introduced a new Sambhota Tibetan alphabet, he created with the help of Pandit Devavitsimhi, this goes back to the alphabet letter tsentralnoindiyskomu VI-VII centuries. It is believed that Thonmi Sambhota translated into Tibetan Karandavyuha Sutra and the Sutra Ratnamegha.
Of course, the translation of Buddhist scriptures in Tibetan was preceded by the preparatory work on the giant live speech conversion of the nomads in the literary language. Probably already existed in Tibet, some literary form of spoken dialects, which were used in the courts of princes, and reliance on it greatly facilitated the task of translators. It is interesting to note that from the very beginning of work on the translation of Buddhist texts into Tibetan Buddhist scholars led a group of different nationalities. So, we know that Thonmi Sambhota helped Indian Brahmin Shankara, Nepali and Chinese scholar Silamanzhdu Buddhist monk named Mahadeva Tse. These teachers came to Tibet in the retinue of the Nepalese and Chinese wives Tsenpo.
After the death of Bon Srongtsen Gampo tried to return to their positions, and its resistance
was finally broken in the reign of Trisong-Detsena (reigned 755-797 years). They are called the golden age of Tibetan Buddhism. That's when Buddhism began to spread among large sections of the Tibetan people.
The king ascended the throne very young, and the first real power was in his uncle's mighty Ma-Jean, who was a follower of the Bon and headed the anti-Buddhist movement. Many monks were ordered to leave the country, several monasteries was closed. The image of the Buddha, the famous Jovi, was sent to Kirong on Nepalese border, and the Chinese monks who lived at the temple of Ramoche in Lhasa were forced to flee to China. But supporters of the king and the new faith is not idle. When Tsenpo matured, he dealt with the Ma-Jean, giving it a sacrifice to the spirits of cemeteries (this person is up to his death is confined to the cemetery, food and water he passed). Representatives of the local nobility, who tried to fight with Buddhism, were forced to obey. In this tsenpo never set your goals the destruction of the Bon religion as he struggled with only its political influence, but not with itself. He said: "To me to stay, coupons needed as well as Buddhism. To protect the citizens, need both religion and to attain bliss, and they need both. Bon awful reverence and Buddhism, which is why I and retain both these religions. "
Under the auspices of tsenpo been rediscovered and are based new Buddhist monasteries. In Nepal and India were sent envoys to invite the educated people and preachers of Buddhism. One of these scientists was Shantarakshita of Nalanda. His influence on Tibetan Buddhism and especially his translations of Buddhist texts emphasize the Tibetan historians. However, the philosophical doctrine of the sermon was not a success king was forced to ask the pundit to return to Nepal. Before leaving the king gave Shantarakshita Council to invite the great Tantrikas Padmasambhava, which largely determined the fate of Buddhism in the Land of Snows. Guru Padmasambhava in Tibet had less than a year, but the school he founded Nyingmapa still exists today. He gave the tantric initiation Trisong Detsenu.
Legends tell that Padmasambhava was born in the country Udiyana, which historians believe Kashmir, and Buddhists - the legendary land of Shambhala. In Tibet, Padmasambhava faced not only with people - opposed to Buddhism, but also the hostile demons. So, if you tried to build a temple, then destroyed the demons of the night for all that people were building in the afternoon. Demons attacked Buddhist monks, even in the most Padmasambhava. But the mystic power of the teacher was so great, that he subdued all the demons, causing them to vow henceforth faithfully serve Buddhism. It is these demons and then made a class Dharmapala and subject to them spirits. However, to overcome the ill will of people was more difficult than the fury of demons, and Padmasambhava was forced to return back to India. His texts, most of which were hidden for the time being as a treasure-terma we discuss in the next chapter.
In the early days of Buddhism the number of monks were very small. The first Buddhist monastery of Samye was, which was started in 787 and was consecrated in 799-m. Dedication ceremony led by Guru Padmasambhava and Shantarakshita Acharya, who arrived in Tibet again. This great monastery was built on the model of the famous Vihara Odantapuri in Bihar. The main church of the monastery was three storeys: the ground floor was built in Indian style, the second - and third in Tibet - in the style of Khotan. This is indicative of the mixed nature of Tibetan Buddhism, symbolizing the three main source of the perception of teaching. Over time this monastery was one of the main repositories of ancient Sanskrit manuscripts in Tibet. Buddhist Vihara of this period were not as large as the monastic school later time, which studied thousands of monks, and they were soon hermitage. Vihara consisted of several houses and a temple for them. Inhabitants of the monasteries were the monks and lay people who came for religious practices.
During the reign of King Trisong Detsena Chinese monks have returned to Tibet, and resumed the preaching of meditative exercises, negating the benefit of studying philosophical texts. Their preaching was successful, so that the followers of the acharya Tsenpo Shantarakshita faced with the need to combat the spread of this school. Just then there was the famous dispute between the Chinese monks and Kamalashiloy, a disciple and follower of the teachings of Shantarakshita Madhyamaka. At the debate won Kamalashila. Tsenpo promulgated a decree by which now and forever Tibetan monks had to follow a system of Nagarjuna, Madhyamaka doctrine, which became the philosophical basis of most Tibetan schools. It is interesting to note that the Chinese manuscript found in a secret library cave temple of the monastery Dunhuang, confirms the story of dispute.
Death Trisong Detsena caused the inevitable surge of reactions: the son of the great king, the young Mune-Tsenpo was imprisoned. Some time later, power was transferred to Tsenpo Ralpachanu, which was the codification of the Buddhist canon. But in 836 he was succeeded on the throne of the worst in the history of Tsenpo Tibet - the grandson of Trisong Detsena Dharma, known for his cruelty, "lang" - "The Bull". Lang Darma began with the unprecedented scale before destroying Buddhism and Buddhists, he forced the monks to become hunters or butchers, that is, break the vow neubieniya beings. Recalcitrant waited for death. Buddhists declared Lang Darma, an embodiment of a mad elephant, once tamed by the Buddha himself, but once again show his angry temper. About Tsenpo said that he had horns like a demon, and so he did not braids hair in a braid (like all the Tibetans), and is on the top of the beam, covering the horn. After just six years after the reign of Lang Dharma hatred for him increased so that the king was killed. Tradition tells us that one monk was in a dream Lhamo and ordered to kill Tsenpo. Monk sewed his black robe with a white lining, smeared their faces with soot, as well as his white horse. In the sleeve robe, he put the bow and arrow. As he approached the king, took him all over the black demon, a monk killed Lang Darma, and he rushed to the river. On the way, the monk turned his coat inside out, crossing the ford the river and washed the soot off his horse and, thus knocking the pursuit of the trail.
Imperial period did not survive the king, and ended with his death in 842. Now we know that the eclipse of Buddhism in no way was ubiquitous, that in spite of persecution in the country there were many Buddhist monks who had fled to distant suburbs. Revival came from the north-east of Tibet. Around 978 of monks, known as the "Six of Uyya and Tsang," came to Tibet and proclaimed the revival of Buddhist teachings. Since that time, the position of Buddhism have remained unchanged.