Dhammapada is rightly considered the most outstanding monument of early Buddhism. It is a collection of maxims, it is assumed that they were uttered by the Buddha himself on a particular occasion. This alone is enough to understand why this ana was and is authoritative for Buddhists all over the world, a kind of textbook of life, outlining the moral and ethical standards.
Another advantage of the Dhammapada that puts it on par with the great monuments of ancient literature - the perfection of artistic form, its amazing grace of the sutras, each of which represents a complete aphorism, hitting a capacious and concise imagery. It is worth noting the emphasis on the essential rather than a formal display of piety: "Even if a person repeats a little Scripture, but lives by following the Dhamma, freed from passion ... - he was involved in holiness" (20).
This monument of literature creates an image of the sage, submitting their lives to curb their own mind and emotions. Before us is a truly heroic person, going hard to his goal, winning a wise man over himself stand above all the military victories of generals.
Persistently and consistently Buddha explains to his disciples that they alone are responsible for their existence: first, all problems are difficult or easy to resolve, depending not on themselves but on attitudes and, secondly, a person who is in power defilements, he attracts trouble. Anyone's "higher" aid can not be counted: "You should make an effort," - says the Buddha. Having overcome his passion, subduing his emotions, a man truly happy. He is free from attachment, pleasant and unpleasant alike indifferent to him.
This kind of statements are important, primarily for the monks. However, in the Dhammapada, we find a set of ethical maxims, which are addressed to any person, regardless not only of whether monk or layman it, but also on Buddhist or not.
A special place is occupied by a section on Brahmins. This is due to the modern Buddha religious situation in India, when belonging to a Brahmin varna was considered equally holy. Buddha with all the fervor denies this, arguing that it is not birth, and personal spiritual qualities define human dignity. Just Buddha denied that formal compliance with the requirements of the ascetic even an inch closer to sainthood. What is important is not the form is important inner workings of man over himself.
Language Dhammapada - Pali, Sanskrit, respectively, the term "dharma" sounds like "Dhamma" (in both senses, and as the law and as the smallest unit of life).
From the first chapter
Chapter pair of stanzas
1. Dhamma caused by the mind, their best part - the mind, of reason they were created. If someone says or does with impure mind, then it is followed by bad luck, as the trail carrying a wheel.
2. Dhamma caused by the mind, their best part - the mind, of reason they were created. If someone says or does with a pure mind, then happiness follows him like a shadow relentlessly.
3. "He insulted me, he hit me, he prevailed on me, he robbed me." Those who harbors such thoughts, hatred does not cease.
4. "He insulted me, he hit me, he prevailed on me, he robbed me." Those who are not fraught with such thoughts, hatred ceases.
5. For never in this world hatred does not cease by hatred, but hatred ceases lack of it. That is the eternal Dhamma.
7. Someone who lives in the contemplation of the pleasures, unrestrained in their senses, immoderate in eating, lazy, indecisive, - that it overwhelms the Mara, as a whirlwind - helpless tree.
8. Someone who lives without contemplation of pleasure, reserved in his feelings and moderate in eating, full of faith and determination - that it can not crush the Mara, as a vortex can not crush the stone uphill.
9. Who wears a yellow robe, he is not free of dirt, not knowing the truth, no self-restraint is not worthy of a yellow robe.
10. But who got rid of the dirt, who stands in the virtues, full of truth and self-restraint, it is worthy of a yellow robe.
19. Even if a person constantly repeats the Scriptures, but negligent, should not he, he is like a shepherd who considers the cows of others. He was not involved in holiness.
20. Even if a person repeats a little Scripture, but lives by following the Dhamma, freed from passion, hatred and ignorance, having the true knowledge, a free mind, not having any attachment to it, nor in the other world - he was involved in holiness.
From Chapter Two
The head of the seriousness of
21. The seriousness - the path to immortality. Levity - a way to die. Serious does not die. Frivolous like the dead.
22. Clearly aware of this, the wise - are serious. In seriousness, they derive pleasure. In the field of precious they are happy.
23. Thoughtful, stubborn, persistent and always wise, they attain Nirvana free from loyalties and incomparable.
28. When the wise seriously runs levity, he carefree, rising to the top of wisdom, looks at the sore sorrow of humanity, as standing on the hill standing on the plain, as the wise fool on.
32. Bhikkhus, finding pleasure in the seriousness or the fear of looked down on the frivolity, unable to fall, because he is close to Nirvana.
From Chapter Three.
The chapter on the thought
33. Trembling, quivering thought, easily vulnerable and hardly restrained by the sage sends, as an archer an arrow.
34. Like a fish taken out of his element and thrown on the shore, shaking this thought: if only to escape from the power of Mary.
38. The one whose thoughts are unstable, who knows the true Dhamma, whose faith is wavering, - wisdom is not perfect.
39. In chaste thoughts, thoughts nevspoloshennoy, waived good and evil, no fear of waking.
41. Alas! Not for long, this body will live on earth, rejection, callous, useless, like a blockhead.
42. Whatever made the enemy of an enemy or a hater hater, misdirected thought can do even worse.
43. Whatever made her mother, father or some other relative, is true of thought can do even better.
From Chapter Four.
The head of the flowers
44. Who will win the land and the world of Yama and the world of the gods? Who can find a well-taught path of Dhamma, as the wise man - a flower?
45. Pupil will win the land, the world of Yama and the world of the gods. Pupil finds a well-taught path of Dhamma, as the wise man - a flower.
46. Knowing what this body is like froth, which understands its ghostly nature, broke the arm of Mary decoration with flowers, that he will be invisible to the king's death.
48. But the man detachment flowers, whose mind in blinkers, in sensual pleasures of a rainy, death makes itself subservient.
49. Like a bee, typing juice flies without harming the flower, its color and odor as well let the wise man goes to the village.
50. Let it not looking at the mistakes of others, done and not on others, but done and not done by him.
51. Well spoken word of man, which he should not, just as fruitless as a beautiful flower with a nice color, but devoid of flavor.
52. Well spoken word man next to him fruitful, like a beautiful flower with a pleasing color and fragrant.
53. As from a heap of flowers can make a lot of wreaths, and death, when he is born, can make a lot of good things.
58-59. As for the heap of rubbish thrown out in a big way, can grow lotus sladkopahnuschy and pleasing the mind, so students truly enlightened wisdom stands out among the mediocre-blind, among beings like garbage.
From Part Five
Head of fools
60. Long night for waking, long Yojana for the weary, long Samsara for fools who do not know the true Dhamma.
61. If it encounters a wandering like themselves or better, let it be strengthened in solitude: a fool there is no friendship.
66. With no reason, stupid act with him as the enemy, committing an evil deed which brings bitter fruit.
69. As long as evil ripens, the fool thinks it like honey. When the evil ripens, then fool indulges in grief.
72. When the fool to his master the knowledge of the disaster, it destroys his lucky draw, smashing his head.
73. It can be willed to him an inappropriate position and primacy of bhikkhus, and the authorities in the monasteries, and reverence among other genera.
74. "Let them think and laity, and hermits, it's made me. Let them depend on me in all matters" - such is the intention of a fool, and his desire and pride increase.
75. For one way leads to the acquisition of wealth, the other - to Nirvana. Knowing is this, bhikkhus, a disciple of Buddha, do not rejoice honors, but will love solitude.
From chapter six
The head of the wise
76. If anyone sees a sage, indicating the shortcomings and blamed for it, let it be for such a wise man, as for indicating the treasure. Better, not worse will be the one who follows this.
80. Builders canals allowed water archers dominate the arrow, carpenters dominate the tree, the wise men humble themselves.
81. As a strong rock can not be moved by the wind, that the wise men of unshakable slander and praise.
83. Virtuous continue their journey under all conditions. Good, even tormented by desire, not talk. Touched happiness or sorrow, the wise do not allow either one or the other.
84. Neither for himself nor for the other it is not desired nor son, nor riches, nor the kingdom. On the illegal path willed himself not succeed. May he be noble, wise and just.
87-88. Leaving the dark dhamma, let the wise man cherishes light. After retiring from the home into homelessness, alone, it would seem malopodhodyaschem for joy, let him seek it with pleasure. Abandoning desires, got rid of the property, let the wise cleanse from the filth his mind.
From chapter seven
The head of the arhat
93. He desires destroyed, and it is not tied to food, and his fate - release, free from the labors and conditions. His path, like a bird in the sky, is difficult to understand.
94. Feelings in his calm, like horses, curb the charioteer. He refused and pride devoid of desires. Such gods even envy.
96. He is calm thought and word and act calmly. Such a peaceful and unfettered - a perfect knowledge.
From chapter eight
The head of a thousand
100. One useful word, hearing which become calmer, better than a thousand speeches, made up of useless words.
101. One hemistich heard that become calmer, better than a thousand poems, made up of useless words.
103. If someone wins in a battle a thousand thousand people, while the other would have won by a single, then this is the other - the greatest winner in the battle.
104. Indeed, a victory over a man living in a constant self-restraint, he humbled himself and is better than winning over other people.
106. Let someone month after month, a thousand times in a hundred years makes sacrifices, and let the other reward honor - at least for a moment, - improve yourself. Indeed, a century-old devotion better offerings.
108. Whatever donated during the year as virtuous or offering alms, all is not worth a penny and broken. Respect for leading a righteous life - better.
112. One day life is better having a boiling energy a century of existence lazy and devoid of human energy.
115. One day of life who has seen better dhamma hundred years of human existence, not seeing Dhamma supreme.
From the heads of nine
The head of the evil
116. Let him hurry to make good, and evil that he may hold up your mind. For the mind of who is in no hurry to do well, finds pleasure in evil.
119. Even the evil sees happiness as long as evil is not yet ripe. But when the evil ripens, then evil sees evil.
120. Even good seeing evil, while the benefit is not yet ripe. But when the benefit is ripe, then sees the benefit of the good.
121. Do not think lightly of evil: "It will not come to me." After all, the pitcher is filled by falling drops. Stupid is filled with evil, even gradually accumulating it.
122. Do not think lightly of goodness: "It will not come to me." After all, the pitcher is filled by falling drops. Smart is filled with good things, even gradually accumulating it.
124. If the arm does not hurt, can carry the poison in his hand. The poison does not hurt having no injuries. Who does not do evil, is not subject to evil.
126. Some returned to the womb, evildoers fall into hell, the saints - the sky, devoid of desires attain Nirvana.
127. Neither in heaven nor in the ocean or in the mountain cleft, if it penetrated, there is no such place on earth where living would be freed from the consequences of evil deeds.
128. Neither in heaven nor in the ocean or in the mountain cleft, if it penetrated, there is no such place on earth where the living could not conquer death.
From Chapter Ten
The chapter on Punishment
129. All tremble before the punishment, all fear of death - put yourself in another's place. Can neither kill nor urge to murder.
130. All tremble before the punishment, life is pleasant for all - put yourself in another's place. Can neither kill nor urge to murder.
133. No one tell me roughly, those with eating you said roughly the same answer you. After all, it irritated - uncomfortable, and retribution can touch you.
141. No walking naked, nor matted hair nor mud, nor fasting, nor lying on the damp earth or dust and mud, no squatting does not cleanse the death, no doubt about winning.
142. Suppose he even decorated, but if he lives in a world, calm, humble, moderate, leading a righteous life, rejecting the use of punishment to all beings - he is a brahmana, he is a recluse, he
From the eleventh chapter
The chapter on old age
147. Look at this ornate image on the body, full of flaws, made up of parts, painful, filled with many thoughts, in which there is no certainty or consistency.
148. It is worn out body, a nest of diseases, perishable, this putrid pile of decaying, because life has no end - death.
149. What a pleasure to see these bluish bones scattered like pumpkins in the autumn time?
150. Made from the bones of this fortress, plastered with flesh and blood, old age and death, deceit and hypocrisy inherent in it.
151. Wear even painted royal chariot, the body and also close to retirement. But the good Dhamma does not come close to old age, for her virtuous virtuous lecture.
From Chapter Twelve
The head of his "I"
157. Knowing what your I - it's nice, though vigilant in guarding themselves. Sage must stay awake during one of the three guard.
158. Let it first yourself will result in proper condition. Then you can teach both. The wise do not go astray.
159. As he teaches the other, so let myself come. Completely humbling himself, he can swallow, and others. In truth, humility itself - it's hard.
163. Bad and bad things for yourself - do easily. However, what is good and useful - to make extremely difficult.
165. For the man himself to do evil, and he defile himself. Do not commit evil, he also himself, and he cleans itself. Purity and pollution associated with itself. One another is not clear.
From Chapter Thirteen
The head of the world
168. Stand up! Do not be careless! Follow virtuous Dhamma! Observes the Dhamma lives happily in this world and even in the other.
170. Who sees the world as one looks at the bladder, as looking at a mirage, that does not see the king's death.
171. Go ahead, take a look at this world, like an empty royal chariot! Where floundering fools from the wise have no attachment.
172. Who, before being frivolous, then became serious, he illuminates the world like the moon freed from clouds.
173. Who redeems a good deed done evil, that illuminates this world like the moon freed from clouds.
174. This world is blind. Few see it clearly. Like a bird freed from the network, only a few get to heaven.
From Chapter Fourteen
The head of the enlightened
179. Which path you personally lead this bestropnogo, enlightened, which owns limitless realms, in which the victory does not turn into defeat, and whose passion is not the defeated continues in this world?
180. Which path you personally lead this bestropnogo, enlightened, having boundless spheres, which does not involves into the trap of affection, desire, go astray?
181. Even the gods envy those enlightened, full of deep thoughts, who enjoy the tranquility of the release, brought to meditation, mudras.
183. Not doing evil to achieve good purification of the mind - that the doctrine of enlightened.
184. Exposure, patience - the highest asceticism, the highest Nirvana - say enlightened - for harm to others - not a hermit, wrong one - not an ascetic.
185. Neoskorblenie, no harm, and in accordance with the abstention pratimoksha, and moderation in eating and uedinnenoe existence, and devotion to the sublime thoughts - that the teaching of the enlightened.
188. Seek refuge to any people, tormented by fear: the mountains and forests, the trees in the grove, to the tombs.
189. But even this refuge is not safe, and a shelter is not the best. Has reached such a refuge is not relieved from all sorrows.
190. Those who took refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha, who has a genuine knowledge - see the four noble truths.
191. Evil, origin of evil and overcoming evil, and the Noble Eightfold Path leading to the cessation of evil.
192. Here is a safe haven, a refuge - the best. Has reached a safe haven free from all sorrows.
194. Blessed is the birth of the enlightened, blessed be apprenticed true Dhamma, Sangha consent blessed, blessed ascetic living in harmony.
From the fifteenth chapter
Head of happiness
From Chapter twentieth
The chapter on the way
273. The best way - octal, the best of truths - four words, the best of dhammas - the destruction of the passions, the best of the two-legged - who perspicacious.
274. That way, there is no other for the purification of view. Follow him. All different - a delusion of Mary.
275. Following on it, you'll put an end to suffering. This path has been hailed me as I learned how to remove thorns.
276. You should make an effort. Tathagata - the only teacher. Those who follow this path and samouglublen, freed from the bondage of Mara.
282. Truth, wisdom born of reflection, lack of thinking - the destruction of wisdom. Knowing this twofold path of life and the destruction of life, let him do so wisdom increased.
284. As long as men are not eradicated the desire for women - even the least - until his mind is on a leash like a calf sucking milk from the mother.
285. Pluck his wish, as pull arm autumn lotus. Follow the path of peace to Nirvana, Sugata said.
Of the twenty-first chapter
The head of a different
291. Anyone who is looking for happiness, causing suffering to other, entangled in a net of hate, not free from hatred.
292. After all, what should be done, has been postponed, there is no need to do, by contrast, is done. Such reckless and arrogant desire to grow.
293. But those whose minds are constantly focused entirely directed at the body does not follow that there should not be done, stubbornly doing what must be done. In such wise and thoughtful desires disappear.
296. The disciples of Gautama, endowed with great alertness, always awake. Day and night, all the time they thought directed toward the Buddha.
297. The disciples of Gautama, endowed with great alertness, always awake. Day and night, all the time they thought is oriented to the Dhamma.
298. The disciples of Gautama, endowed with great alertness, always awake. Day and night, all the time they thought directed toward the Sangha.
300. The disciples of Gautama, endowed with great alertness, always awake. Day and night, their minds are pleased to nonviolence.
301. The disciples of Gautama, endowed with great alertness, always awake. Day and night, their mind is happy thinking.
304. The good shine from afar like the Himalayas. Evil is near impossible to see how can not see arrows shot at night.
Of the twenty-second chapter
The head of the underworld
307. Many of the people whose necks wrapped in yellow, the Dhamma and adhere poorly incontinent. Low due to their low acts, they are born in hell.
309. Careless person who wants someone else's wife, will receive four things: the achievement of infamy, disturbed rest, third, condemnation, and fourthly, the underworld.
310. And the achievement of infamy, and a bad fate for him, and the short-lived love with scared scared, and the king imposes heavy punishment. So let man not looking for links with another man's wife.
311. As a grass jackpot, if for her clumsy grasp, cut his hand, and the hermit life, if it is wrong to lead, pulls into the pit.
312. Anything done carelessly, prostrate debt, dubious piety - all this does not bring great rewards.
313. If anything should be done - do, do the with firmness. For the relaxed traveler only raises more dust.
314. Not done better than poorly made, poorly made since then tortured. But it is better made by well-made, for making it, no regrets.
315. As a border town, guarded from within and without, so guard yourself. Do not miss the same time, for the lost time indulge in grief, doomed to a life of hell.
Of the twenty-third chapter
The head of an elephant
320. Many people are evil, and I will suffer the humiliation, the elephant in battle - an arrow released from a bow.
321. Tamed lead into battle, the king rises to the daunting. Tamed, who suffers insults - the best of people.
322. Tamed mules, horses and noble Sindhi, and the big elephant - good. But better than this one who humbled himself.
327. Rejoice in the severity, guard your mind! Get out of a bad way, like an elephant stuck in mud.
328. If you find a reasonable one another, ready to go along, upright living, wise, prevozmogshego adversity - go with him, happy and thoughtful.
329. If you can not find a reasonable one another, ready to go along, upright living, wise - come one, like a king renounced a conquered kingdom, or like an elephant in the elephant forest.
Of the twenty-fourth chapter
The head of the desire
336. Who wins in this world is a miserable, difficult pobedimoe desire, have to vanish sorrow, like a drop of water from a lotus leaf.
338. Like a tree, though torn, continues to grow, if its root is intact and strong, and suffering is born again and again, if not eradicated the tendency to desire.
342. People driven by a desire, running around, running around like a frightened rabbit. Related fetters and bonds, they again and again for a long time back to suffering.
343. People driven by a desire, running around, running around like a frightened rabbit. Therefore, bhikkhus, if he wants to destroy the passion, the desire to let the drive out.
346. The wise say these strong bonds, bearing down, insidious, difficult to get rid of them. Will cut them, they wander, abandoning of passion and pleasure, without desire.
347. Excited passion get in the flow, like a spider in a web woven by himself. But the wise, destroying the flow, giving up all evils roam without desire.
350. Who finds satisfaction in quiet thought, always thinking, thinking about unpleasant things, that he put an end to desire, he will destroy the bonds of Mara.
351. He has reached perfection, he is fearless, and he has no desires, perfect, he destroyed the thorns of existence, it is his body - the last one.
353. I still won, I know all in all I do not tainted by dhamma. I gave up everything to the destruction of desires, I became free. By learning from myself, who will name a teacher?
Of the twenty-fifth chapter
The head of a bhikkhu
360. Restraint of view - good restraint hearing - good, restraint of smell - good, moderation of language - is good.
361. Restraint of the body - good, restraint of speech - is good, moderation of thought - good, moderation in all things - good. Bhikkhus, discreet in all things, is freed from all sorrows.
362. Who controls the hand, foot controls, controls speech, runs perfectly, because the inner joy, focused, single and satisfied - this is called a bhikkhu.
363. In bhikkhus, which restrained in a word, it is wise reasons, not arrogant and explains the meaning and dhamma, it is sweet.
371. Meditate, O bhikkhus, and do not be frivolous, do not give thought to rotate in the flow of sensual pleasures, to thee, careless, did not have to swallow the iron ball, and burning in the flames, shouting: "This suffering!"
372. No thoughts of one who knows, there is no knowledge of one who is not thinking. Who is and thinking and knowing that, indeed, is close to Nirvana.
373. Bhikkhus with calmed the mind, retired into solitude, experiencing superhuman delight: he clearly sees the Dhamma.
379. Itself compels a check himself. Such a bhikkhu, watching each other, focused, will live happily.
380. For you are your own master, because you own your way. So humble yourself like a good horse trader.
382. Bhikkhus, who, though young, is drawn to the teachings of the Buddha, illuminates this world like the moon freed from clouds.
Of the twenty-sixth chapter
The head of Brahman
385. I call a Brahmin, for whom there is neither this shore nor the other shore, nor this and that together, who is fearless and free from attachment.
386. I call a Brahmin who thinks, is free from passion, calm, who does his job, overcoming desires, who has attained the highest good.
387. The sun shines by day, the moon shines at night. Warrior shines in the Shell, Brahman shines in meditation. But day and night shines bright luster enlightened.
388. Whoever threw the evil that is called Brahman, who lives in the stream - a hermit; threw the dirt its called "Clear."
389. You can not hit the Brahmin, Brahmin and not let his anger pours out at the offender. Shame on him who struck the Brahmin, and even more shame izlivshemu anger at the offender.
391. I call a Brahmin who has not committed any evil body, word or thought - who restrains himself in three things.
393. Brahman are not due to matted hair, ancestry or birth. In whom truth and Dhamma, he is happy and the Brahman.
397. I call a Brahmin who broke the bonds and who, indeed, does not tremble with fear, who overcame the attachment, and detached from the world.
398. I call that enlightened Brahmin, which removed the barriers and broke the belt, whip and chain with a bridle.
399. I call a Brahmin who, not being guilty, blowing away the reproaches of punishment, imprisonment, who have the patience - the strength and power - the army.
401. I call a Brahmin who does not cling to sensual pleasures, like water on the lotus leaf or a mustard seed on the point of sewing.
403. I call a Brahmin who has reached the supreme good, who knows the right way and wrong way, the sage whose knowledge is deep.
405. I call a Brahmin who does not kill and does not cause to kill, who does not lift his stick on living creatures, cowardly or brave they are.
406. I call a Brahmin who remains unruffled among anxious, rising of a stick - a calm, among tied to the world - free from attachment.
408. I call a Brahmin who speaks true speech, instructive, no sharpening, no man.
409. I call a Brahmin who, here in this world takes what is given, whether it be long or short, small or large, good or bad.
412. I call a Brahmin who escaped here and affection for good and evil to those who bespechalen, passionless and pure.
413. I call a Brahmin who, like the moon without stains, clean, serene, unruffled, who extinguished the joy of existence.
414. I call a Brahmin who overcame the dirty, difficult road, samsara, deceit, who swam and reached the other side who are thoughtful, free from desires and devoid of doubt, no attachments and calm.
415. I call a Brahmin who is, abandoning the passions, the homeless, wandering around in the room was extinguished desire to exist.
416. I call a Brahmin who is by abandoning the desire, the homeless, wandering around in the room was extinguished desire to exist.
418. I call a Brahmin man who won the worlds, the one who refused to pleasant and unpleasant, who is cool and cuts its way to rebirth.
420. I call that Brahmana whose path does not know neither gods nor Gandharvas nor men, the Arhat, who disappeared desire.
422. I call a Brahmin who is powerful, like a bull, noble, courageous, victorious, has great wisdom, free from desires, is perfect and enlightened.
423. I call a Brahmin who knows his former existence and sees heaven and hell, who, being a wise man, full of perfect knowledge, achieved the destruction of birth, and who did everything possible to make.