The tradition of the school kagyupa (kadzhupa another pronunciation) has its roots in India, the mystical experience of the Siddhas. The line of spiritual succession begins with kagyupy Mahasiddha Tilopa, who got the basic practices directly from Adi-Buddha Vajradhara ("Dorje Chang" in Tibetan). Tilopa was the author of no less than eleven guidelines for yoga, included in the Tibetan canon, among them - "Guru Sadhana" and "Achintya-Mahamudra." Tilopa referred to as "the great yogis mentor," which included Atisha and Naropa. Tilopa himself was a direct transmission line Chakrasamvara Tantra, which is apparent from Mahasiddha Saraha.
Saraha was committed to direct, unsupported path. He said: "If the truth is manifest, what is the use of meditation? If it is hidden, look for it - then measure darkness. Mantra and tantra, meditation and concentration - all of this source of self-deception. Do not litter the concentration of thought, pure in its nature, and dwell in the bliss of self and stop these tortures. The nature of the heavens was initially clean, but from vsmatrivaniya and gazing eyes mist. " Saraha entirely spent thinking about the identity of samsara and nirvana: "As there is no difference between the sea and the waves, so there is no distinction between Buddhas and other beings."
Tilopa (988-1069) was one of the most prominent teachers of Mahamudra (literally "great sign") doctrine, which BD Dandaron called the vertex of the Indo-Tibetan philosophy. Mahamudra is the foundation, the heart of the Vajrayana teachings on the unity of wisdom and method. Mahamudra is defined as a holistic perception of the world, writes about mahamudra-Dakpa Rinpoche, a disciple of Milarepa: "It has neither good nor bad, it is omnipresent and all-embracing. It is impossible to say about it, that it "is" or that her "no." It - invisible and imperceptible shunya. At the sight of her there is samadhi. It is the reason and the law of the material elements and the entire phenomenal world, and even relatively alienated from samsara and nirvana. The identity of bliss and Shunyi - it's her nature. Absolute, invisible, its shape is full of supreme wisdom. Mahamudra is a bright light through the intuitive understanding of mystical insight, which does not concern a particular object, and still is the compassion for the sake of misguided creatures. "
Passing Mahamudra teachings, Tilopa said: "The emptiness does not require support. Mahamudra itself support. Effortlessly, while remaining relaxed and natural, you can break the bonds and achieve liberation. " Tilopa said repeatedly that it is the mind - cause confusion: "He who clings to the mind, does not see the truth that lies beyond the mind. He who controls the Dharma, the truth is not what is outside of practice. To find out what is beyond the mind and practice, you must completely cut the root of mind and see with the naked eye. So should get rid of all distinctions and remain at rest. "
Naropa was a well known pundit, a great scholar and abbot of Nalanda University, one of the most important centers of Buddhist culture in medieval India. However, his knowledge remained on an intellectual level. And in order to achieve the essential understanding, he relinquished the position of abbot and went in search of Tilopa, which was given to him in visions as a teacher, able to awaken his spirit.
Naropa search was long and grueling, many times he saw Tilopa, host of different guises, but did not recognize him. Finally Naropa finally came across a fisherman who was frying fish in the pan, and then snapped his fingers, revived her, and threw back into the water. So Naropa met with his teacher. Naropa became his disciple and twelve years patiently endured violent and unpredictable nature of his guru. History apprenticeship at Naropa Tilopa is notable that the high wisdom of the teacher conveyed through actions, which the Europeans seem bizarre.
Tilopa did not give him any exercise, but always felt it's ability for self-denial. Once, when teacher and student were in a mountain cave, Tilopa asked him to descend into the valley and bring water. Despite the terrible heat, Naropa was the last effort to climb back to the water. Once Tilopa saw him, he took off his sandal and struck on the forehead with Naropa. Naropa fell, stunned. Coming to his senses, he felt a great change: awakened in him a true knowledge.
Naropa was the practice of Dakini Vajravarahi, and sold it six months later meditations. After this magical achievements of Naropa became truly amazing. So, tell us that when he saw the corpse by the roadside words, he ordered that the corpse to get up and walk to the place of cremation, where he and collapsed. Eccentricities of behavior was typical and Naropa, when he sent his siddha Shantipa student at the altar, then the student saw that the altar sat a yogi terrifying appearance; in terror fled to the student teacher. Shantipa found in sitting on the altar of Naropa, prostrated before him and received many important initiations. Atisha, before heading to Tibet, received the blessing of the dying of Naropa, and there is written evidence that Atisha brought to Tibet by the relics of Naropa, then there are wonderful white balls sarira representing the materialization of the spiritual energy of a great man.
Naropa was the author of twenty-three written papers, and all of them have been preserved in Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit originals found only one. Several of his works dedicated to the practice Vajravarahi, another is a commentary on the Kalachakra Tantra, and the most important are the "Six Yogas of Naropa." Although this text belongs to the tradition kagyupy, he gained fame after he wrote a commentary on Tsonkhapa. The six yogas are as follows: the inner heat yoga ("tummo"), yoga, illusory body ("Gyu-ho"), yoga, dreams ("mi-lamas"), the yoga of clear light ("one-fats"), the yoga of consciousness transference ("phowa"), the yoga of the intermediate state ("Bardo").
If the identity of the Naropa's no doubt that his sister Niguma in some texts emerges as a man, while others - like the dakini, half of the body which was like a rainbow. About Niguma says that she gave to his disciple Khyunpo practice of illusory body, so that he could project himself simultaneously in 128 appearances. He was seen sitting in the air and preach the crowd. Khyunpo was tremendous educated, he knew the tradition of Bon Nyingmapa Kalachakra, seven visits to India. About him say that he founded 108 monasteries in Tibet, he gave the teachings Niguma and it became a small school in kagyupe.
In India, his homeland, Naropa would be forgotten if not for his students, a Tibetan Marpa, who translated all the works on Tibetan guru. The importance of remittances Marpa was so great that his name was added to the "Lotsawa", "translator." Marpa spent in India for seventeen years, studying with many outstanding teachers. Later he wrote that he listened to the teachings of Indian guru hundred and eight, and studied one hundred and eight works on grammar and poetics, as well as one hundred and eight works on tantra and received one hundred and eight oral transmission of the teachings. Though outwardly Marpa lived as an ordinary householder, irascible and eccentric man, he was a great yogi and poet, and even introduced in Tibet, a new poetic style. Marpa is the first Tibetan teacher of the Kagyu tradition, which applied to him and his chief disciple Milarepa called "Cargo", the words from the Tibetan word "car" - "white." This is due to the fact that Marpa, not being a monk, wearing a white shirt, as well as Milarepa wore white cape (the very name of Milarepa means "dressed in cotton clothes"). But over time, the school's name began to form from the word "ka", "manual", so that the modern term "kagyupa" means "school of instruction" or "lineage."
Perhaps the most famous person in kagyupe a yogi and poet Milarepa (1039-1122), one of the greatest spiritual poets of mankind. His "One hundred thousand songs" venerable Tibetans, as well as the biography of Milarepa, drawn from his words by his disciple Rechungom Dorje. The Life of Milarepa is a dramatic description of the spiritual ascent of anger and confusion to the pacification and wisdom.
Milarepa was a consummate master of yoga tummo internal heat, most of his life he spent in the mountains, the snow, without fuel, and sometimes with almost no food. Thus, once a cave where he meditated for a few months, buried under the snow, while Milarepa was with only a bag of barley in the spring when the disciples came to pick up the body of teachers, they found that he was alive, but not barley eaten whole.
Among the disciples of Milarepa highlights Gampopa, who is known as a master of synthesis, because at first he was a follower of Kadampa (school-based Atisha, and her successor was gelukpa), and then entered into the transmission line kagyupy. He warned about overuse as an intellectual exercise, meditation and against without proper preparation. Here are some of his statements.
"One brief glimpse of enlightenment while meditating more valuable than the knowledge gleaned from books, discussions and reflections." In this case: "Meditation without proper training by learning and perception of the doctrine can lead to pernicious wandering in the wilderness of the unconscious." Gampopa taught: "Leave your mind at rest, and he reached enlightenment by himself, just as the water itself becomes transparent, if not muddy." This statement in no event does not imply a justification of spiritual passivity and calm the mind - this is freedom of philosophizing, but not weakness. Moreover, Gampopa advised to use for spiritual practice every life situation, even if it does not seem appropriate. This follows directly Gampopa Milarepa, who said: "The disease is yoga, as a rule, should be seen as a call to a religious deed, and he does not need is someone to pray for his recovery. He should treat his illness as a tool to help you along the path is and always be prepared to accept suffering and even death. "
Regarding apprenticeship at Milarepa Gampopa a highly instructive story. Describing his teacher Milarepa, the first thing replaced Gampopa dark red monastic robe in white robe, to which Milarepa replied, "You should not become my copy! You need to grow your own knowledge. My knowledge is mine, and yours should be yours. " After that Gampopa engaged in meditation and he had several visions of Buddha, mandala, six realms of samsara, and so on. Every time he happily informed the teacher about it, but it cooled the ardor of Milarepa, saying that this is only an illusion and the real implementation of the practice is still far. Finally Gampopa dreamed that his head is cut off and drove off down the hill - and it was a sign that the root of his self completely destroyed.
Despite the outstanding merits of students of Milarepa, they did not achieve the glory of his mentor - the great poet. In his poems Milarepa surprisingly philosophical wisdom of Buddhism combined with a sincere admiration for nature and observation. For the most abstract categories of high, he finds surprisingly simple and clear comparison. Milarepa sensitivity to the world around him, was reflected in the iconography: the poet izobazhayut with his hand, put to the ear hears the sounds that are not normal hearing.
Here are a few of his poems.
Field calm the mind
It is well and fertilize I stand by faith,
Then sow the seeds of its selective,
Born of the spotless heart,
And over the field like thunder, hear a sincere prayer,
And grace will flow to a heavy rain.
By the oxen and plow a concentrated force
I fasten share the proper method and the Mind.
Oxen, driven by purposeful plowman
With a firm hand to the same goal,
Knut perseverance and dedication spurred,
Loosen the hardened soil of Ignorance generated
Five sinful passions
And cleanse it of stones firmed a life of sin,
And remove any specks of hypocrisy.
Then a sickle of Truth Karmic Laws
Will be gathered harvest of a righteous life.
These grains, which are the sublime truth,
Will be collected in the warehouse,
To which can not be applied any umopostroeniya.
Let all who are sincerely seeking the Truth,
Will be protected from obstructions and delays on the path.
In the Temple Hill Bodhi, my body,
In my chest where the Altar
In the Halls upper triangular, located in the heart,
Uma horse, swift, stands on its hind legs.
What a noose to catch that horse?
Which pole to tie it when he is caught?
What kind of food to give, when he was hungry?
What to drink it when he thirsty?
What's hall to keep it cold season?
To catch the horse, we need loop a common goal.
It must be bound when caught, to a post Meditations.
He should be fed when hungry, the teachings of Guru.
It should be watered when thirsty, of stream of consciousness.
It should contain when it is cold, in the Halls of the Void.
Will be a saddle, bridle and - Intelligence.
His rider - Youth Intelligence, vigilance.
Helmet rider - Mahayana altruism.
His coat of mail - Knowledge, Thought and Contemplation.
On the back of him - a shield of Patience.
In his hand he holds a long spear aspirations.
Smooth Uma cane or cause of the Universe,
Rectified the lack of anger and hatred,
With feathers of four infinite virtues,
With sharp ring-boom Uma, who made a shrewd,
Inserts it into a flexible bow Spiritual Wisdom
And fixing the hole in the Paths of the Wise and the correct method,
The bow to the fullness of communion
And he admits boom among all peoples.
They come in and destroy the spirit of the devotees of selfishness.
Since defeating the enemy - the evil passions
And our family are protected.
Since then, the grace of my Lord came to me
I have always maintained a concentration of mind.
Accustomed for a long time to think
About Love and Compassion,
I forgot about the difference between me and others.
Accustomed for a long time to meditate on the Guru
Surrounded by shining over me
I forgot about all those who govern the authority and power.
Accustomed for a long time to meditate on my gods - as inseparable from me -
I forgot about her earthly body shell.
Accustomed to meditate on selected
Truths, passed in a whisper,
I forgot everything that is said in written and printed books.
Accustomed to contemplate the body as a mere three in me
I forgot all about hope and fear.
Accustomed to meditate on this life and the future as a single,
I forgot about the fear of birth and death.
Accustomed for a long time myself to learn my own experience,
I forgot to ask the opinion of friends and brothers.
Accustomed for a long time to keep my mind in the uncreated state of freedom
I forgot about the convention and invented traditions.
Accustomed for a long time to know the meaning of the Ineffable,
I forgot about how to study the roots of words
And the origin of words and phrases.
And let you, the mnogoucheny,
You will find confirmation of my words in the authoritative books.
Phantasmagoria, hallucinations and visions of demons -
All are made from yoga
And go back and disappear into it again.
If anyone would gravitate to the reality of visions -
Entangled in your meditation.
If he does not know what all the obstacles
Discover void manifestations of the mind,
He be disappointed in your meditation.
The root of all confusion
Also comes from the mind.
Anyone who understands the nature of the mind,
He saw a great glow without coming and going.
Observing the nature of all external forms,
He realizes that they are nothing,
As illusory picture of the mind.
He also sees the identity of emptiness and form.
Moreover, to meditate - the illusory idea.
Do not meditate - as illusory.
When someone talks about a non-practice
But his mind is still active -
He speaks of the radiation,
But in fact, blind
At the level of Non-Practice
None of that!
I'm happy because I left my family.
Because rejected attachment to my country,
I am indifferent to this place, and I'm happy.
Because I do not wear a garment bogosluzhitelya arrogant,
Because I'm not looking for family and home
Because I am the owner of the great wealth of the Dharma,
Because I do not care about the property,
Because I'm not afraid to lose anything
With no drudgery, no fatigue,
The bandits, thieves and robbers never molested me
And at all times, I'm happy!
Stopping the atrocities and leaving sin
Following Through Merit,
Lost all pride and jealousy,
Immersed in the peace and tranquility,
Without hope or fear,
In the area of non-clinging Illumination
The sound of thunder, though strong - an empty phrase.
The colors of the rainbow, though beautiful, are rapidly disappearing.
The world, though happy, like a dream
Kalachakra and Shambhala
Kalachakra (or Kalachakra-yan, Kalachakra Chariot) is the doctrine of the identity of the macro-and microcosm, the interdependence of all levels of the universe. As a meditative practice Kalachakra refers to anuttarayoga, and is the practice of complete purification of human spirit and the level of energy.
Prior to the distribution system of the Kalachakra issues related to the passage of time, in Buddhism, virtually no attention was paid. According to a prominent Tibetologist VS Dylykova, the human mind comprehends first category space, and only much later - the category of time. And if the concept of infinite space was marked by another early Buddhism (see "Buddhist Cosmology"), the comprehension of the time there is hardly above the tenth century. Just as the feeling of the infinity of space was the result of profound yogic concentration, and a sense of infinite time cycles change becomes possible for the Kalachakra practice, and attainment of nirvana in this case is perceived as going beyond not only the space (remember that all levels of the macrocosm are Buddhist Samsara ), but also time.
The Kalachakra Tantra is composed of three "Wheel of Time", called outer, inner and secret. External Kalachakra back to the Indian astronomical and astrological systems, it describes the location and surroundings of the sun, moon, stars, planets, etc. The earth is round, fixed at the center of the universe. It is surrounded by twenty-eight constellations through which the moon. The constellations are considered to be goddesses, daughters of the kings of the four-miroderzhtsev. All Buddhist astrological scheme calculated on the basis of the Kalachakra Tantra. It includes Chinese and came from twelve to sixty, and "animal" cycles.
Internal Kalachakra refers to all living within the physical world, and describes the channels of the body, energy and fluid circulating inside it. Inner Kalachakra practice involves the thinning of the nervous system through yoga, to improve the aesthetic senses inspired idea. Peace and Inner and Outer Kalachakra needs to be cleaned.
The secret Kalachakra associated with the methods of attaining enlightenment, it includes the initiation, which requires the person that received it, steadily followed by the state of Buddha Kalachakra.
The name "Kalachakra" in relation to external and internal means leaking into the circulation time of the heavenly bodies and the energies within. Relatively Secret Kalachakra this term means that the universal compassion turns while so that all affected entities have reached enlightenment. In this case, the Kalachakra is perceived as a good comprehension of the Void, where there is no past, present and future.
Adept Kalachakra past few rites under the guidance of a guru, visualizes in his mind Kalachakra mandala, which unfolds in three-dimensional space, getting kind of beautiful palace. This is consistent with the doctrine that the way to Shambhala - the way inward. By meditating on the mandala, a man in his own mind is a certain level of creation, merging with idam Kalachakra. Picturesque mandala thus becomes nothing more than a map of the path.
On the severity of the requirements of this path indicates, for example, a verse of the Kalachakra Tantra:
That is the bodhisattva practice: to give up this life,
To part with close friends,
With whom have been together a long time.
Health and achievements - all left behind.
And the inn of your body
Will be leaving the lodger - consciousness.
Visualizing the mandala as a follower enters the palace through one of the four doors, each of which serves as a gateway to one of the four faces of yidam Kalachakra. In the western door man gets seven rites of initiation, at the northern gate - the initiation of water and the initiation of the corona. The essence of these initiations is as follows.
According to the teachings of the Kalachakra, one consists of five components: land (bone), water (fluids, blood, urine), fire (heat), wind (internal metabolic processes) and space (empty space). Going through the initiation of water, a man is that these five components - cleaned, transformed into a pure state, which in the language of European culture can be called divine.
The initiation of the corona is in a similar purification of consciousness, forms, feelings and ability to distinguish fine.
At the southern gate of the palace Kalachakra initiation the adept receives a silk ribbon, as well as the initiation of the vajra and bell. This cleansing nine winds, and the right and left energy channels of the body.
Near the eastern gate is the initiation and conduct of the true name. This cleansing six senses and the six physiological functions (eating, grasping, movement, defecation, urination and reproduction). All these qualities are the highest purity.
Returning to the western gate, initiation, the adept receives permission to cleanse his soul in moments of practice, and enabling him to instruct others in the Kalachakra.
After that he goes up the steps to the main palace. Entrance is located on the west (on the picturesque mandalas - the top). The walls of the mandala palace transparent, their colors - yellow, white, red, black and green. Adept enters the part of the palace, called the "speech mandala", which talks to him idam Kalachakra.
A few more steps lead to the outer wall of the adept innermost part of the palace. Here on the four pillars on each side we see the symbols of the four Dhyani-Buddhas swords as a sign of Amoghasiddhi, lotuses - Amitabha, diamonds - Ratnasambhava, the golden wheel - Vairochana. Another staircase - and adept reaches "mandala of the brain", rectangular platform that is on a raised eight-petalled lotus on it - white disk of the moon, red sun disc, a white disk of the planet Rahu and yellow disk fiery tail of the planet Rahu. It cost idam Kalachakra and his prajna Vishvamata.
Top of spiritual ascent for Kalachakra begins with comprehension, that is, establishing a spiritual connection between man and the highest level of pure energy, which we call the word "Kalachakra". Currently, the Dalai Lama XIV, giving the dedication of hundreds and thousands of people, explains this by saying that the world needs in an effective way of salvation, and the emergence of people of spiritual connection with Kalachakra can be that way.
In his book "On the Kalachakra initiation into" the XIV Dalai Lama writes about the three basic qualities required for the initiation: "The first property is bodhicitta, the altruistic aspiration to highest enlightenment. Best student living experience of the sublime unfeigned consciousness, mediocre student achieves its small glimpses into their meditations, the worst should also understand it and strive to develop it. The second property, given in terms of wisdom, or intuitive special training, have experience of comprehension of the Void. The best student experience has undistorted nature of ultimate reality, a mediocre student has a correct understanding, based on education and general ideas, and worst student should at least understand their importance and to show interest in studying philosophy. In addition, a student, aspiring to the initiation of the Kalachakra, must have a special attraction to the tantric tradition. The purpose of initiation is to sow the seeds of karma in the mind of the initiate, but if he does not have the openness that has developed out of spiritual interest, then the seeds will be very difficult to grow. "
In contrast to other yogic practices of tantra, Kalachakra can not meditate adept at the subtle body, but on a deeper basis of the "hollow body." Accordingly, the notion of "three Kalachakra" XIV Dalai Lama commented as follows: "External Kalachakra consists of elements of the universe. Internal Kalachakra is made up of psycho-physical aggregates, sensory and mental abilities of living beings. Kalachakra is a secret yogi infancy and completion of yogic techniques that can clear the previous two Kalachakra. "
Of the many practices of the Kalachakra, we give the practice of Guru Yoga, compiled Kyabje Khangsarom Dordzhechangom, which is the spiritual father of the Dalai Lama at the Kalachakra lineage. As directed by the Dalai Lama, in front of the Kalachakra initiation in which His Holiness gave in Ladakh in 1976, this text was printed in ten thousand copies for free distribution.