YN Roerich translates the word "yi-dam, yi-dam-pa" as "someone whose spirit is strong and enduring." Another translation - "God wills." This section backers the tantric teachings, we can only comprehend them in meditation. Each llama has its own divine "protector", which selects or for life, or for any particular purpose. Typically, these gods defenders appear angry or threatening, relaxed incarnation. Since the main idam - Guhyasamadzha, Samvara, Kalachakra, Vajrabhairava, Hayagriva - personalize them with the same name of Tantra, the first descriptions of the deities should describe briefly the Tibetan tantric teachings as such. The very concept of "tantra" means literally "grip" in the figurative sense - "secret knowledge". Tantra - a method or way to achieve enlightenment, which helps the practitioner to attain Buddhahood in one lifetime, although with great effort. The roots go back to pre-Aryan Tantric India, the cult of mother goddess, in the magic of rural communities, largely associated with sexual rituals. Tantric doctrine grew out of these beliefs, based on the representation of the identity of the micro-and macrocosm, the universe and of man, as all being built to unite two principles - of male and female. Depending on which recognizes the primacy of the beginning, Tantra is divided into the "right" and "left." Tantra is "right hand" rule in India, it recognizes the leading men, the active principle. In its ritual union of male and female started to play real sex. Tantra is the "left hand" - this is the Buddhist tantra, it recognizes the beginning of the leading female, symbolizing wisdom. Merging the two began a monastic tantra, of course, can only be symbolic. In Tantra, the "left hand" there is a strong influence Shaktism, which is the object of worship Devi - the wife of Shiva. In this tantra, as well as in Shaivism, each male deity has his divine consort Shakti, which merges into the eternal embrace. Tantric tradition asserts that the gods are mighty and wise only through connecting with their shakti. Shakti (feminine energy), Prajna (wisdom prohibitive) is a fusion of feminine wisdom and merging in the form of Prajnaparamita, which, as originally mahayanicheskim text in tantra deifitsiruetsya and is deeply revered goddess, "the mother of all Buddhas." "Like mother, deducing the child on the road, the Supreme Wisdom Buddhas show their best way." Wisdom, symbolized by the feminine, is inherently present, poured into the world. Masculine represents a method ("upayya"), through which is perceived wisdom. Symbol method - Vajra - the attribute of a huge number of deities. Another feature of Tantra "left hand" is the presence of a large number of fearsome deities, representing an embodiment of the forces transforming negative emotions into wisdom, as well as an elaborate ritual of contemplation. Tibetan Tantra includes four classes of tantra: tantra of action (Kriya-tantra), suggesting improvement through ritual, tantra run (Charya-tantra), in which ritual and meditation are recognized as equivalent; Yoga Tantra, which is based on yogic meditation, and Tantra yoga top (Anuttara yoga-tantra), in practice, which is basic comprehension of non-duality of the universe, the unity of opposites. "As of bliss and emptiness (Shunyi) - said in one of his lectures the Dalai Lama XIV, - what is meant here the indivisible unity of wisdom, comprehending emptiness, and profound feelings of bliss ... The value of bliss to realize emptiness of comprehension so great that many of the meditation deity yoga tantra high portrayed in copulation. But as I said, it's bliss is very different from what is experienced in the ordinary intercourse. " Image idam in copulation with their female hypostasis - Prajna - means that each principle, personified in the form of yidam, has two sides - the active and passive, and only their union gives the opportunity for spiritual growth. Such images are called in Tibetan, "yab-yum" ("father-mother"), their form back to the Indian temple sculpture, reflecting the myths that God finds its true power only in union with his wife, Shakti. Tantra yoga top, accessible only to those monks who have attained a very high level of spiritual development and is able to grasp the true nature of things, regardless of appearances, takes a unique position with regard to women. If all other Buddhist texts, whether hinayanistskie, mahayanistskie or three other classes of tantra, women are unable to achieve enlightenment or even creatures that impede the achievement of the Enlightenment, the Anuttara yoga-tantra woman - the embodiment of wisdom, prajna - is placed above the men. In many texts belonging to Anuttara-yoga-tantra, tantra, such as the Vajra, the main deity is of feminine appearance. In tantra yoga high, such as Guhyasamadzha tantra, the opportunity to practice women to achieve full awakening of a single life is recognized openly and unconditionally. The primacy of the feminine principle expressed in the fact that many of the deities (especially the bodhisattva) have zhenovidny appearance. Lotus - the symbol of wisdom, prajna - serves as the throne of all the Buddhist gods, the feminine - the cornerstone. Iconography idam entirely devoted to problems of meditation: Multiple images of deities in Tantra - not arbitrary creations, and images that reflect the methods for purification of contaminated psychophysical aggregates (aggregates), the elements (dhatu) and sources (ayatana). In this peaceful and wrathful deities shape, number of faces and hands, the number of principal and accompanying figures, etc. correspond to differences in propensities, attitudes and abilities of students. Iconography distinguishes three types of images idam - calm, excited (calm-threatening), and angry. In a quiet idam incarnation (Guhyasamadzha) gracious person, a halo over his head, behind the circular glow, body proportions match the proportions of the Buddhas. In idam excited to subsistence (Kalachakra Samvara, Hevajra) mouth slightly bared, no halo, the circular lights behind the outer part represents the arc of flames, the body proportions are the same. In a blistering idam incarnation (Yamantaka, Hayagriva) figure is the same as that of Dharmapala, bloodshot eyes bulging, mouth, bared, their backs raging flames. Idam school Nyingmapa - winged (Vadzhrakila and others), idam gelukpy do not have wings. In the iconography idam (as well as Dharmapala) includes attributes taken from Shaivism: tiger skin on the thighs (in India believe that the tiger fur radiates energy necessary for meditation practice), a rosary of skulls, a necklace of severed human heads and the like. The cult of the attributes of Shiva - the echoes of cannibalistic rituals, and in Buddhism - impermanence of the symbols of the material world, to overcome the traction to the skin. To conclude our brief outline of the iconography idam in general, should say a few words about the symbolism of art nagtan - recipe colored contours on a black field. In this technique, write the images idam and Dharmapala, intended for meditation. Image so angry god protect practitioners. Black symbolizes the supreme reality, shunyu-void, but at the same time and the hatred that is transformed through spiritual practice of transcendental wisdom. The idea of transforming the negative human qualities in the spiritual achievements - one of the most important in tantra. Guhyasamadzha belongs to yidam Anuttara-yoga-tantra. His full name - Guhyasamadzha Akshobhyavadzhra. "Guhyasamadzha" translates from Sanskrit as "Secret Meeting" or "Secret Meeting". His second name indicates that he is an emanation of Dhyani-Buddhas Akshobhi whose symbol - vajra. In Guhyasamadzha Tantra it is called a manifestation of Adibuddha in the world of phenomena, a symbol of the trinity of body, speech and thoughts of all the Tathagata. His attributes: Vajra and bell - the symbols of Adibuddha and Akshobhi, Wheel of Law (mirror wisdom) - the symbol of Vairochana, the lotus (the thin wisdom) - the symbol of Amitabha, the jewel (equitable wisdom) - the symbol of Ratnasambhava, sword (all-perfect wisdom) - the symbol Amoghasiddhi . Thus Guhyasamadzha embodies the union of forces of all the Dhyani-Buddhas. His prajna Sparshavadzhra radiates anger, contrasting tranquility of her husband. Guhyasamadzha Tantra - this is one of the first Sanskrit works have been translated into Tibetan. According to legend, Buddha Shakyamuni gave her the morning after the Enlightenment. Another legend says that the great Buddhist philosopher Asanga (IV cent.) Traveled to the sky Tushita, where he obtained it from Maitreya. It is in Tantra Guhyasamaja first presented the concept of the five Dhyani Buddhas, their emanations, communications with the parties to the light, colors and so on. We see this in practice below. Daily practice Guhyasamaja is: Always appeal to the Refuge Tathagatas staying in my own mind that there is a mind game, realizing net result is an incomparable and compassion - all excellent method. Constantly refer to the sublime Dharma Refuge, finally break away from all, without exception, inventions, reliance perfect superb the heroes of the real nature edinovkusiya. Constantly referring to the Refuge Assembly of the Lords of austerity, indeed liberated from the shackles, full of grandeur, that compassion is born, And in a land going for great joy. Purification of intentions and full maturation Eliminate germs of all the pollution, beauty of the singular determination to the idea of generating excellent Bodhi. I'm getting Wrathful Vajra body with black and blue face, three faces: black, white and red, six arms, holding in right - vazhdru, Wheel of the Law, the lotus, the left - a bell, a jewel and a sword. I like hugging my wife - Vadzhrasparshatavya. We are both decorated with eight jewels. Upper body clothed in a divine upasparshu of tissues. Lower body is covered with nivasanoy of the divine fabrics. I'm on top - Vairochana, in the throat - Amitabha, in the heart - Akshobhya. In the umbilical cord - Ratnasambhava, in the pelvic region - Amoghasiddhi, in the umbilical cord - Lochan, in the heart - Mamaki, in the throat - Pandaravasini, on top - Container. In the eyes - Ksitigarbha in my ears - Vajrapani in the nose - Akashagarbha, in the language - Lokeshvara, in the heart - Manjushri, in a secret location - Vishkambhin in joints - Samatabhadra, on top - Maitreya. In the gate of the eye - Rupavadzhra, in the gate of the ears - Shaptavadzhra, in the gate of the nose - Gandhavadzhra, in the gate of the mouth - Rasavadzhra, in the gate of the vajra - Sparshavadzhra. In his right hand - Yamantakrit in his left hand - Pradzhnyantakrit in the mouth - Padmantakrit on vajra - Vighnantakrit in his right shoulder - Achal, in his left shoulder - Takkiradzha in his right knee - Niladanda, in his left knee - Mahapala, on top - Ushnichakravartin in both feet - Sumbharadzha. Beam emitted from my heart HUNG, invite victorious from Akanishthi. DZA: HUNG BAM HO: one becomes a non-dual with his Samayasattvoy. Odnolikie double-handed deity Lord of the families of each flow maternal and paternal dedication bodhicitta make each deity. Om Sarva Tathagata ARGHAM PRATIZTSA HUNG OM Sarva Tathagata SUOHA PADYAM PRATIZTSA HUNG OM Sarva Tathagata SUOHA CPMP PRATIZTSA HUNG OM Sarva Tathagata SUOHA DHUPE PRATIZTSA HUNG OM Sarva Tathagata SUOHA ALOKA PRATIZTSA HUNG OM Sarva Tathagata SUOHA Gandhi PRATIZTSA HUNG OM Sarva SUOHA Tathagata Neuwied PRATIZTSA HUNG OM Sarva Tathagata SUOHA SCHAPTA PRATIZTSA HUNG SUOHA Akshobhya - the great original knowledge Vajradhatu - great art, excellent Vajra Speech, Mandalay Three Secret sphere - worship! Vairochana - great purity, serenity Vajra - the joy, the Self-Subsisting clear light - the highest of the highest teacher Vajra - worship! Jewelry king - Velikoglubinnomu, Like Vajra space - unspoiled, self-existent clean - spotless, Vajra body - worship! Vajra immensity - the great king, nonconceptual space - Vadzhroderzhtsu, having acquired the perfection of passion, Vajra Speech - worship! Amoghvadzhru - a perfect Buddha, performing all the thoughts that arose out of pure emptiness, Vajrasattva - worship! seed syllable at the heart of every deity mandala of the body is surrounded by its own mantra OM A: HUNG OM A: BEDZR-HUNG HUNG OM DHRIK A: SPARSCHA BEDZR Kham HUNG OM A: Jin-HUNG OM OM Dziki A: Ratna-HUNG OM OMS DHRIK A: AROLIKA A: HUNG OM A: PRADZNYA-HA HUNG OM DHRIK A: LAM HUNG OM MOHARATI A: HUNG OM DUESHARATI MAM A : HUNG OM RAGARATI MEMORY A: TAM HUNG OM BEZDZRRATI A: RUPABEDZR DZA HUNG OM A: HUNG HUNG OM SCHAPTABEDZR A: BAM HUNG OM GANDHEBEZDR A: RASABEZDR CW: HUNG OM A: Mamie MEYTRI HUNG OM A: CHITIGARBHE TLIM HUNG OM A: HUNG OM OM BEZDRAPANI A: HUNG OM OM KHAMGARBHE A: HUNG OM OM LOKESHVARA A: HUNG HUNG OM MANDZUSHRI A: SARVANIVARANA-HUNG OM OM BISKAMBINI A: SAM HUNG OM Samantabhadra A: YAMANTA-HUNG HUNG OM CRETE A: PRADHZNYATA CRETE-HUNG HUNG OM A: PADMANTA-HUNG HUNG OM CRETE A: BIGNANTA-HUNG HUNG OM CRETE A: HUNG HUNG OM ATSALA A: HUNG HUNG OM TAKKIRADZA A: HUNG HUNG OM NILANANDA A: Mahabali HUNG HUNG OM A: USNISHA-HUNG HUNG OM TSAKRAVARTI A: SUMBHARADZA HUNG OM Bezdrev Satu MOST, MANU PALAYA, Bezdrev Satu TUENOPA TIST, ME DRIDHO Bhava, Suto ME SHE bhava, bhava SUPO SHE ME, ME ANU Rakta bhava, Sarva siddhis MME PRAYAZTSA, Sarva CARMEN SUTSAME, TSITTAM SRI-Yam Kuru Hung, HA-HA-HA-HA HO: Bhagavan Sarva Tathagata BEDZR MAME Munz, BEDZRI bhava, Maha Satu MOST A: HUNG PET
In Tibetan Buddhism, particularly esteemed group of eight Bodhisattvas. Their attributes are not consistent, it is very difficult to identify. The book "300 Burkhanov" These bodhisattvas are depicted as follows:
№ 146 Vajrapani with the vajra and bell,
№ 145 Manjushri with a sword and a book on a lotus,
№ 147 Avalokitesvara with a lotus, his right hand in the mudra varada,
№ 149 Vishkambhin with the sun on a lotus, the left hand in strange wise,
№ 148 Ksitigarbha cintamani with the left hand in the mudra varada,
№ 150 Akashagarbha with the sun on a lotus, the left hand in the mudra varada,
№ 152 Samantabhadra with vajra and lotus
№ 151 Maitreya with a lotus, the left hand in Abhaya mudra.
It is noteworthy that only Manjusri sits in the lotus position.
On the thangka Bodhisattva dressed in clothes radzhakumary, Indian Prince, decorated with gold ornaments. The lower part of their bodies wrapped in cloth, called paridhana, the prototype of the modern Indian dhoti. On their shoulders falls uttara - transparent veil of embroidered fabric. They are brahmana thread, which descends from the left shoulder, and serves to distinguish them from the female deities wearing the same clothes as a bodhisattva, but this distinction is often not observed. Tiara on their head. Bracelets on their hands. Heavy gold necklaces come down from the shoulders.
A special place among the Bodhisattvas is the god of longevity Amitayus ("Infinite Life" hypostasis Dhyani Buddha Amitabha), forming together with the goddesses and the White Tara Ushnishavidzhaey triad of gods of longevity.
Amitayus belongs to the Yoga-tantra, the bodhisattva depicted in the robes, sitting in meditation, holding a jar of the elixir of immortality from which the tree grows Ashoka, which is considered the tree of life. Snizki balls that decorate the vessel, - the image came from the Taoist magic pills of immortality.
Rituals associated with Amitayus, have arisen in Indian Buddhism. According to one tradition, his cult was brought to Tibet by Padmasambhava, who hid describing the practice of God's manuscript in a cave, where he was discovered in the XIV century Mahasiddha Tangtong Gyalpo, who lived 125 years, and received instruction in a vision sent by Padmasambhava. Other scientists Lama elevate the appearance of teaching and teaching Amitayus to Atisha.
It should be noted that the pursuit of longevity does not contradict the basis of the foundations of Buddhism - a non-attachment to life, because of the six forms of existence (gods, asuras, humans, animals, hungry ghosts - prohibitions, the martyrs of the hells), only expression in the human body gives the possibility to approach the essence of Enlightenment . Human life is long enough so that you can manage to do much in the way of spiritual growth, but short enough to inaction on this path was not fatal. The gods and the Asuras (the elder brothers of the gods, the Titans of Greek analogue) live in the enjoyment of many thousands of years, they do not know suffering, and not think about the necessity of salvation, the lives of three of the lower forms of life consists of suffering, while suffering in human life is sufficiently large, to think about the teachings, but not excessively so. The birth of the human body - the greatest good, which should be actively used.
In the practice of Tibetan Buddhism and one of Central Asia occupies an important place, "the ceremony of obtaining a long life." In the early twentieth century it was carried out weekly in the monasteries. Conducting its monks were men of pure morality, abstaining from wine and meat.
The ceremony was long and complicated, and we here mention only some of its moments, but refer the interested reader to the full description.
After offering to the statue Amitayus Lama joins his chest with his chest vajra, thereby linking their spiritual essence. He cries: "Oh Amitayus, reigning in the five temples shine! O lord of the four cardinal points, zenith and nadir! And especially you, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, I beseech you all to bless me and fulfill my request, giving me a spirit of humility and endless life on offense. Please send your gift of eternal life and get off me. I pray your blessings on the Buddhas of three times (Dipankara, Sakyamuni, Maitreya). "
As a result, water in a ritual ceremony of the bowl into a drink of immortality Amrita. The choir of monks singing: "May you live is constant, as adamant, victorious, as the banner of the king, let it be firm and strong as an eagle, and it lasts forever. May I be blessed gift of eternal life and be fulfilled my desires. "
Lam, leading the ritual becomes the embodiment of Amitayus, he gives the water-amrita and "the pill of life" crowd and says: "The life that you now receive, as surely as the vajra. Take it with reverence. Worship Amitayus, the god of infinite life, the head of the rulers of the world. Let your glory and his virtue, and every happiness! "
Maitreya - the only bodhisattva, which is acknowledged by all, without exception, the direction of Buddhism. Coming Buddha seen as the bodhisattva (in the scriptures), and as the Buddha (in tantra). Already in the Digha-nick (III, 76), it is spoken of as a future Buddha, Sakyamuni's successor. In one section of the Vistar Lalita (V, 39) says that enlightened before descend to earth from heaven Tushita to become a Buddha, Bodhisattva Maitreya pointed as his successor and put on his tiara on her head a Bodhisattva. With regard to the Maitreya uses both meanings of the word "Bodhisattva" - and "future Buddha" and "personality, which gave a vow to serve humanity." Maitreya - the only one in the Tibetan pantheon, who is represented on an equal footing and as the Buddha and Bodhisattva as.
According to legend, one of the previous incarnations, he met Shakyamuni, who became his teacher. Later, when he was meditating on the image of teachers, students saw Maitreya stupa of enlightenment on its top. Therefore, Maitreya is represented by the stupa on the head.
Maitreya continued to take care of people over many lifetimes, helping them everywhere, and finally reached the highest stage of the bodhisattva path. Buddha Ratnagarbha took his vow of a bodhisattva, and predicted that he would become a Buddha.
Maitreya will be born on earth where people would live more than eighty thousand years. He would be born in a brahmana family, will in the world and twenty thousand years, and then reach enlightenment under a tree, naked and surrounded by 4080 disciples. It is said that this tree grows to a height of thousands of miles and be stretched to twelve miles in breadth, and all will be covered with beautiful leaves and fruits. (Flowers Naga wood are common in the iconography of Maitreya.)
At present, Bodhisattva dwells in heaven Tushita, where his companions are bodhisattvas Mandzhushrigarbha Akashavimala and who on earth were Tsonkhapoy and Atisha. Such a close relationship with these teachers Bodhisattva is because first of Atisha, and then to merge two spiritual Tsonkhape flow coming from the Shakyamuni Buddha - "the broad tradition of effective", as embodied in Maitreya, and "deep contemplative tradition" embodied in the Manjushri.
Tibetans believe that if an artist creates sculptural or pictorial image of Maitreya, and reads his mantra that he be reborn in heaven Tushita.
Fa-hsien, a Chinese traveler of V century, describes the legend of the monk's bowl of Sakyamuni, which is kept secret until then, until Maitreya does not come incarnate. According to another legend, the mountain not far from Bodhigayya lies the body of Kasyapa, who keeps the robes of the Buddha. When Maitreya will appear in the world, he miraculously split the mountain and get the latest clothes from the sage of a Buddha.
Images of the Bodhisattva Maitreya, carved on rocks, often found in western Tibet, and passes on the north-western mountains, leading to the great caravan routes of Central Asia.
The earliest temple of Maitreya in Tibet was built Srongtsenom Gampo in the VII century, this temple was a stone statue of Buddha to Come, savagely damaged in 1966. In the XI century church was built Rongbyamchen, where there was a huge bronze statue of Maitreya. In 1915, the Panchen Lama IV erected a temple to Maitreya Tashi Lhunpo, which to this day is a great gilded statue of the Bodhisattva.
Before proceeding to describe the paintings of our collection, we will allow ourselves to give the outline of the iconography of the bodhisattva in its basic forms.
"The beauty of Maitreya is beyond description, his beautiful voice is gentle and clean" - says about it. His basic posture of hands - Dharmachakra pravartana-wise. Its main attributes - Wheel of Law, mortar and container in the form of a teapot with a spout (kundika), symbolizing his future birth of a Brahmana. Typically, the attributes are on the lotuses and flowers on the sides of the Naga Bodhisattva.
The most popular pose of Maitreya - bhadrasana ("good will pose") with the striking down from the throne, rarely, he is depicted sitting in Padmasana ("lotus posture") or standing. Rare images of Maitreya in lalitasane - with a slightly dropped right foot.
The combination of these iconographic features little to do with how the shows Maitreya - the Buddha or Bodhisattva like. Thus, in his article on the iconography of Maitreya, prof. SF Oldenburg cites the following options (ill. 15):
Maitreya Buddha, as in Padmasana or bhadrasane lotus and without them;
Maitreya Bodhisattva as a bhadrasane with attributes on a lotus;
Maitreya Bodhisattva as in Padmasana, the right hand in a pose of preaching (dharmadeshana Mudra - thumb and forefinger together), the left - in a pose of meditation (dhyana-mudra), holds a cup, a shoulder - with the attributes of lotus flowers;
Maitreya Bodhisattva as standing, his right hand in dharmadeshana-wise, the left - is omitted, holds lotuses with attributes;
Maitreya in the Tantric form - trehliky, four hands, lalitasana; two hands in the Dharmachakra-pravartana-wise, in the lower right-varada mudra (generosity), the left holds a lotus;
as well as rare forms.
Maitreya is in heaven Tushita.
In the space of the scroll soaring golden circle, edged along the edges of the rainbow. Rainbow - a symbol of the way to the heavenly realms, input or bridge in the heavenly land. Sometimes surrounded by a rainbow glow of Buddhas or bodhisattvas, but in the iconography of Maitreya rainbow - an indispensable feature that allows you to identify the Bodhisattva, in the absence of others.
The top of the range of Maitreya Bodhisattva in the form of sitting on a lotus throne, the golden palace. The body of Maitreya gold color, which symbolizes the enlightened essence, he sits in Padmasana, hands in the wise and dharmadeshana Dhyani, in the palm of his left hand he holds a vessel kundiku. Near the throne - and the bodhisattva Mandzhushrigarbha Akashavimala, as well as six other deities. In small palaces are located on each side of Shakyamuni Buddha and Bodhisattva Manjushri.
The lower half of the circle is a garden. The palace garden was separated from the water left in them naked zheltotely Maitreya pouring from the vessel kundika people, in order to wash away their sins and afflictions.
In the center sits zlatotely Maitreya (bhadrasana, Dharmachakra-pravartana-wise) on his lotuses are Wheel of the Law and kundika. Throne of Maitreya support lions on the throne - a white umbrella, behind the throne - a palace. It is noteworthy that paridhana Maitreya white rainbow (see above about the rainbow as an attribute of Maitreya.) Before the throne of Maitreya is the pond where the lotus are born out of the righteous. Setting Maitreya - eight bodhisattvas and multitude of the disciples and monks.
In the bottom center of the golden circle - in the clouds Tsonkhapa with students. On the right flies six-armed Mahakala aflame, next to which levitates pious ascetic. Left three Apsaras (celestial dancers). At the bottom left in the palace of the king of the pious Shankha.
Maitreya mantra is: OM Maitreya Buddha MEM Soha. His other mantra: Maitri Maitri MAHAMAYTRI Svaha Om or Maitreya Maha Maitreya Maitreya ARYAN Svaha.
Here is one of many prayers to Maitreya.
Truly an amazing fate image of Maitreya, which became the banner of the Central Asian expedition Roerich. This thangka was carried through the mountains and deserts, but its fate is unknown, and now the picture is lost. Only a picture, NK Roerich with a banner in his hand. In 1997, at the request of members of the International Roerich Centre (Moscow) artist Alvdis NN Rutien thangka recreated on the basis of this photo.
Banner of the expedition is usually called thangka Shambhala. In the early twentieth century, when the whole of Central Asia was gripped by messianic aspirations, image Rigden, warrior king of Shambhala, and Maitreya, the Buddha to Come, have merged into one. Ample evidence that we find in the works, NK Roerich and diaries of expedition members. This association of ideas about Maitreya Shambhala and led to the fact that the painting of the Buddha came to be called thangka the coming of Shambhala.
Maitreya is depicted in a rare incarnation, he was deprived of all their attributes: the stupa, the vessel kundiki, Wheel of the Law. There are only two signs. The first is the rainbow arc lights outside circle, whose role in the iconography of Maitreya, we have noted above. Second, and most importantly, feature - a pond with a righteous before his throne. But curiously, that the landscape in this picture does not look like an ordinary image of "pure land", corresponding to more earthly probation. An important detail of the landscape is a double rainbow over a waterfall (below right). This rainbow is the only author liberty that is authorized by the artist paints a picture, and is associated with the sign, her former in the process: when the artist, the spiritual preparation for writing a thangka, meditated, then the town stretches a double rainbow, even though it was not preceded by rain.
We should mention a couple of deer on the left hill. According to Buddhist legend, deer and fallow deer were the first witnesses of enlightenment of Shakyamuni Buddha and his first sermon in the Deer Park near Benares. The image of the deer around the throne of Maitreya means that his first sermon in the same place.
Sitting on the fence the pond three peacock. Peacock in India since ancient times was considered a bird of immortality, since it is unaffected by snake venom.
Maitreya throne supported by four lions, symbolizing courage in the way of enlightenment. On the lion throne (simhasane) rests lotus throne, on it - the lunar disc, on which the Buddha sits Come.
The back of the throne represents the symbolic image pairs. It is interpreted as follows: the eagle Garuda - generosity, Nagin - resistance, monster Makara - tolerance, one-horned deer boy - the courage, the elephant - meditation, a lion - prajna. However, the lion is always depicted between an elephant and one-horned deer. In our picture it is not at all (incidentally, this is not the only image of Maitreya, where the lion is absent). Variability of the characters portrayed are generally extremely large: monster Makara (which has the lion's head and paws, elephant's trunk, his mustache a dragon, the horns of a ram, the tail of the fish) can be replaced by a goose, a boy and one-horned deer may be displayed separately or non-existent child, etc. . Thus, we do not have the ability to clearly describe the symbolism of the back of the throne.
Another piece (purely visual range): usually these characters are just back of the throne, rather than floating in the clouds, as in our picture. In traditional depictions of the Buddha back behind curtained cloth thrown over the crossbar. And while the back as such no, but the image remains the crossbar.
By way of Garuda and girls Nagin will be addressed in the chapter devoted to the spirits and deities small.
In the bottom picture shows the seven characters Chakravartins - king-miroderzhtsa.
Suppose, using the means of achieving, every living creature will find good fortune to be reborn, to behold the glorious image of the Great Maitreya, and being at the feet of the Savior, Honourable Maitreya, let enjoy the splendor of the Dharma all Chariots Higher!
Let the day will come when the illustrious Lord, Savior, merciful Buddha Coming ascend to the throne of vajra, and that then, as the lotus blossom, my wisdom and experience true happiness every living creature, whom no number!
And then let, experiencing joy and his right hand touching my head, Maitreya, I predict the winner of the Awakening Higher higher, so quickly for the sake of all sentient beings, I reached a state of Buddha!
Suppose, taken together, performing all the acts committed Sons victorious Buddhas of the three times, and that in all his reincarnations practice I will become the path to enlightenment!
Let be hoisted in all 10 areas of the victorious banner of the Teaching, decorated with consummate perfection of the three types of education and let all the texts clear interpretation of its support will be golden!
Let the Buddha's teachings flourish forever - an inexhaustible source of happiness and peace of all sentient beings, who grants prosperity and excellent health to all those noble beings who are inseparably resides with him, supporting the teaching!
Let everyone gives good defender, Maitreya-Winner! Let the strength of his support of all beings It! Let the host of the Maitreya will crush all the forces in March with his skillful means!
Let attain birth I was at the feet of the Triumphant Maitreya and, by the accumulation of countless good merits even cease to exist all the lower worlds: hells, hungry ghosts, animals, asura!
There is no need to repeat the words of reverence for the Great Compassionate broadest who vowed not to go to nirvana, as there is in the world at least one living creature in need of salvation. It is called the greatest of bodhisattvas of Northern Buddhism.
According to legend, he appeared on earth from a lotus flower for the liberation of humanity, and refused to reach enlightenment. He radeet even the salvation of those who suffer in hell, and so it is often portrayed in paintings surrounded by hungry spirits or martyrs hells, who pray to him for mercy and blessing. These myths in pictorial form reflects the meaning of the name of the bodhisattva - "God is looking down." In Saddharma-Pundarika of Avalokiteshvara says: "It is thanks to their powerful knowledge beholds all beings, the besieged by hundreds of poor and suffering by many sorrows, and therefore he is the savior of the world, including the gods," and: "If anyone will be thrown into the fire pit ferocious enemies, though to kill him, he need only conceive of Avalokiteshvara - and he put out the flames, like a bay water. " In Gunakaranda-vyuha, text, completely devoted to praising the bodhisattva of mercy all-inclusive, it is said that Buddha himself, as in a previous incarnation Simhaloy, escaped from the island of the evil Rakshasa demonesses on a beautiful horse, who was an incarnation of Avalokiteshvara.
Through its mantra "om mani padme hum", he travels through the worlds in ceaseless efforts to free all beings from suffering. The sutras tell us that he went down in flaming fire, even hells hell, where each finger with its thousands of hands magic drained of water, extinguish the ocean of molten iron, which remained sinners. Tibetans believe that he took a special vow - to free people from their afflictions, and make their country a radiant happiness.
According to Tibetan legend, Avalokiteshvara was divine ancestor of the Tibetans. Myths tell that people came from the marriage of a mountain witch Bagrin-mo (Demonitsa Gorge) with the king of the monkeys-on Bagrin (Daemon Gulch), and the king of the monkeys was a very incarnation of Avalokiteshvara, or his apprentice. A couple of the divine parents of six children, three of whom have inherited the violent and ungovernable temper his mother, three of them - a peaceful and gentle character of his father (that Tibetans account for numerous wars they fought in the country). Another merit of the myths of Avalokitesvara called barren appearance in Tibet, barley and other cereals, which are tossed into the land of Avalokiteshvara, when the offspring king of the monkeys and the mountain witch threatened to death by starvation.
The Dalai Lama is the embodiment of the Bodhisattva (in the form Ekadaschamukha). Residence of the Dalai Lama's Potala Palace in Lhasa is called - on Mount Potala, the favorite place of stay in India, the Bodhisattva.
Namo Ratna Trayaya Namah Arya Gyana Sagara Vairochana Byuha Rajaya Tathagataya Arhate Samyaksam Buddhaya Namah Sarva Tathagatebhyah Arhatebhyah Samyaksam Buddhebhyah Namah Arya Avalokiteshvaraya Bodhisattvaya Mahasattvaya Mahakarunikaya Tadyatha Om Dhara Dhara Dhiri Dhiri Dhuru Dhuru Itti Vatte Chale Chale Prachalae Prachalae Kusume Kusumavare Ilae Mae Lae Chetae Jvalam Apanaya Svaha
Classical form of the bodhisattva is Ekadaschamukha ("Odinnadtsatiglavy God"). Respect to this form there is a legend.
For many ages Avalokiteshvara labored to all beings out of the wheel of reincarnation. However, he saw suffering in the world do not decrease, and it shocked him so that his head was split into a thousand pieces. Dhyani Buddha Amitabha has collected these pieces together, making them out of ten heads, and on top added his own, advising with the bodhisattva to choose another way to achieve good purpose. And then there was an angry hypostasis of Avalokiteshvara - Mahakala, struggling against the negative forces of compassion and destroying obstacles in the path of the righteous. His head is crowned with nine Mahakala gracious faces of Avalokiteshvara.
This corresponds to the classical form of Avalokiteshvara sadhana (description of the image and practice of meditation deity) created Bhikshuni Shrimati, the sister of the king of India Indrabhuti II, who lived about a thousand years ago. Srimati was very beautiful, but fell ill with plague. Her brother, a devout Buddhist, had advised her to meditate on Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva, and eventually went to her odinnadtsatiglavoy form. She cured the plague and became a nun. And although in what was then India was not accepted for women to travel, she went to the cities, improving the sadhana of Avalokiteshvara Ekadaschamukha and giving his dedication in practice.
To pursue this sadhana, you must observe yourself in the purity of body and moral, it is necessary that the desire may be sincere and altruistic, and not to eat meat, onion, garlic, etc., to eat only once in two days, to remain silent. Need to meditate in a place blessed by the Buddhas or bodhisattvas.
Srimati also gave instructions on the practice of reading the main mantra of Avalokiteshvara billion times. In particular, each meditator must clearly understand the purpose of his meditation. The aim may be peace to all sentient beings; needed for this crystal clear. The aim may be increasing health and welfare of all beings, for that we need a rosary from a tree arura. The aim may be to increase energy and strength, can be a struggle against evil and overcoming obstacles - for all of this requires special rosary.
Analyzing the images of deities, we should not confuse the three levels study the iconography: the exterior - the legendary, which explains the origin of the image corresponding myths or legends; internal - symbolic, iconographic elements treats in accordance with their religious symbols, and deep, which is based on the manifestation of universal features of thinking, those unconscious attitudes that exist independently of time and type of culture. Serious study of Tibetan iconography on the deep level is still waiting in the wings. However, for Ekadaschamukha Avalokiteshvara, we are able to conduct analysis on all three levels. After describing the first level, proceed to the second of them.
At home, many-headed Avalokitesvara symbolic level, meaning that it has passed all the ten stages of the bodhisattva path, and head of Amitabha - that he has reached the level of a Buddha, because he embodies the compassion of all Buddhas.
Its eight arms correspond Osmerichnomu Way, the fourth of the Noble Truths, the Buddha set out in the first sermon. Two of his hands - in a pose anjali - prayers and sometimes he holds between a gem, wish-fulfilling, which symbolizes the enlightened spirit, filled with love and wisdom.
Rosary, which he holds in the upper right arm, designed specifically for reading the mantra om mani padme hum. Blown lotus in the upper left hand - a sign that the attainment of enlightenment is possible only in the way of compassion. In cases where the Avalokitesvara holds triple lotus (budded, and the half-bud), flower becomes a symbol of the Buddhas of past, present and future.
In the mid-hands he holds a Wheel of the Law and bow and arrow, the latter symbolizing the unity of meditation and wisdom. Eye on the bottom right hand means he sees the ability of all the suffering of the world, which corresponds to its name. In the lower left hand - a vessel with an elixir of immortality.
Skin antelope over his shoulder is connected with the myth that the Bodhisattva was an ascetic and possesses magical powers. The origin of this attribute - a sacred thread of Indian Brahmins and generally "dvadzhyrozhdennyh" that is, those who have studied the sacred Vedas. In Buddhist iconography, tape over the left shoulder should be a symbol of male deities, but the symbolism is regularly disrupted - suffice to say that Green Tara is often depicted with a ribbon.
On a deeper level the image of standing bodhisattvas, whose pyramid head rushes upward, represents one of the major mythological ideas of mankind - the world axis, which embodies the forces of good and order and the foundations of the universe. World axis runs through all levels of being, and in the iconography of Avalokitesvara is most pronounced in the form of thousand-bodhisattva, which in each hand - eye.
On this picture, the Tibetans say that a thousand hands the number of kings miroderzhtsev, a thousand eyes on the number of Buddhas of the kalpa, that a thousand hands, he helps all living beings, and sees through the eyes of the suffering of countless worlds. On a deeper level it goes back to the image reflecting the structure of the universe: the circle as the sign of creation and passing it through the axis.
Equally honored image of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva is seated four-armed (Shadakshari Lokeshvara): two of his hands folded in prayer, in the other two he holds a rosary and a lotus. It is considered a form of embodiment of the mantra om mani padme hum. Buddhists believe that each of the six syllables of the magic formula for reducing the presence of one form of existence in the circle of endless reincarnation after death. Those who utter this mantra one hundred thousand times, will find enlightenment. This mantra is called "the treasure of wisdom" or "short teachings," and this is true, because "money" means "Vajra" - a symbol of enlightenment, while the method of achieving wisdom, "Padme" - "Lotus", ie wisdom itself, and their connection to the mantra represents the union of male and female nachvselennoy, understanding of wisdom through the method. Thus, this mantra embodies the basic idea of tantric union of two principles of the universe. Her recent translations (for example, "Om, you're a treasure, sitting on a lotus") only obscures the original meaning. Incidentally, that mantra usually not translated, influencing the magical sound, not sense. Syllables "Om" and "hum" - an exclamation that often begin and end with the mantra. The purpose of these sounds - enhance the action of the magic formula.
Bodhisattva is a rare form of Simhanada Lokeshvara. Belotelov bodhisattva depicted in the garb of a hermit on a lotus throne, which rests on the back of a lion. With his right hand he makes the sign of contact with the ground, the left holds a lotus flower, which are the sword and the cup of human skull full of flowers. In the right hand of him - a trident with coiled serpent around it. According to the sadhana of the bowl, emanate five Tathagata, who are usually portrayed in the paintings of the figure of the bodhisattva. In our picture, instead of five Tathagatas we see the Buddha of medicine and its Bhayshadzhyaguru seven satellites.
Among the forms of Tantric Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, there is one, also called Simhanada Lokeshvara. In this form of the Bodhisattva is represented with Shakti. His body is red. His face angry, it depicts the "roaring like a lion." In the four hands he holds a magical scepter, cup and knife grigug.
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