Popularity of Tara, savior, can not be overstated. Her cult goes back to the worship of mother goddess, the universal protector which protects all living things. On a deeper level feature protects the incarnation of the goddess-mother is a duality (in the ancient art of her character - two navel), so naturally, that Tara is present in the Parivar deities usually once in both its manifestations - the White and Green. Note that it is the only deity in Tibetan Buddhism, which is regularly present in the pictures simultaneously in two forms, for the rest of the deities of their image of several forms of Parivar other deity - an extreme rarity.
By Tara referred to as the "savior, which helps us to move to the other side of the ocean of existence to a pure enlightenment, which soothes and brings fear to fulfill all our desires." Its name derives from the Sanskrit root "tar" - "walk through" and because it is associated not only with the passage across the ocean of samsara, but in modern Buryat culture, it helps the dead find good new incarnation, and therefore in a house where there is dead, Buryat certainly bring the image of Green Tara, if he was not there (the author had the opportunity to witness this custom).
According to mythology, she was born from the tears of Avalokiteshvara. Her favorite abode - Mount Potala, on the heights of which she sees the suffering of this world.
Over time, the religious system includes many Mahayana goddess Hindu pantheon, which is on the rise powerful wave of religious syncretism have been announced by various essences of Tara. It came to be regarded as a universal deity, "Mother of all Jean" ("Gina" - CKPT. "Winner", the epithet of a Buddha). Then Tara is incarnated in the guises of five sacred colors of the Kashmiri poet who wrote admiringly Sarvadzhnyamitra that merciful goddess can be red, like the sun, as blue as sapphire, white as ocean foam, and they sparkled like glitter of gold. "Your universal form similar to the crystal, which changes its appearance when things change around him," - he writes. At the same time there is more complex iconography of Tara in the twenty-one hypostasis.
In Tibet, a very common image of eight hundred or even thousands of Thar, where a large central image of a host of duplicated identical to him. Artists willing to write such films as the creation of multiple images of the goddess leads to an increase of spiritual merit, helps to overcome obstacles and achieve a better rebirth. In general, the image of Tara are a kind of magic shield man.
Practice of Tara in Tibet appeared on the first preaching of Buddhism and became especially prevalent with the activities of Atisha in the XI century, which was his deity Tara meditation.
One of the legends of Tara says that in the infinitely distant past she was a princess, known for his piety, make offerings to Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, Giving monks and nuns in a thousand billion years. And the great monks told her that he would pray to it in future incarnations could become man in order to preach the Buddhist teachings. She replied that in terms of ultimate reality neither male nor female, but she prefers to be reborn a woman in order to thereby visibly demonstrate the equality of men and women on the path of enlightenment.
Two spouses of the famous King Gampo Srongtsen considered incarnations of Tara. Nepalese princess Bhrikuti-Tara in the green incarnation, and the daughter of Chinese Emperor Wen Cheng-Tara in white incarnation.
represents an exceptional cleanliness and transcendent wisdom, and is the goddess of longevity. Devoted to her Tara Tantra is a system of Kriya Tantra. White Tara practice that promotes spiritual growth and renewal of life, in general terms as follows.
There is a strong belief that to achieve the longevity necessary initiation into the practice of White Tara from the high lama, it is desirable to seventy or even eighty years of age. Practice precedes the post, which excludes meat, fish, eggs and other foods, cleaning the place of meditation and your own body, as well as offerings to the goddess.
At the beginning of the ritual practitioner pronounces the formula of refuge, and thrice repeated that his aspirations are pure and that he performs a ritual of self-interest, but for the sake of all sentient beings. Next is the visualization of the various sacred syllables, five Dhyani Buddhas, celestial maidens, who poured water on the head of the meditator that eliminates all bad and evil thoughts. Then the man mentally Tara presents seven offerings - water for washing, drinking water, flowers, incense, light, scent, food, music, reading her mantra OM MA TAPE TUTTARETURE Aiur PUNE gyan PUSHIM KURUYE Svaha and begs for prolonging life and increasing spiritual merit . All the phenomena which man renders must be imbued with rays of white light.
White Tara is always depicted with his family through the eyes of wisdom (three on the face, eyes on each hand and foot), its triple lotus symbolizes the three stages of learning or (bud (avidya) - ignorance, half-opened flower (Vijnana) - logical knowledge, budded (prajna) - intuitive knowledge), or the Buddhas of past, present and future.
in Tara-tantra, called the Mother of the Buddhas of three times, and she - the personification of divine energy enlightened beings. She portrayed a girl of sixteen, to drop that right foot from his throne as a sign of her desire to help people. Her right hand in the mudra of generosity (varada), the left raised to his chest, thumb and index finger joined in the mudra instructions (vitarka) and keep the stem of a lotus, and the three raised fingers symbolize the Triple Refuge. Often, the goddess holds a lotus in each hand.
One of the most interesting iconographic themes - Green Tara, the saving of eight fatalities and eight delusions. Her mantra - OM TAPE TOUR TUTTARE Svaha.
Around a large central image of Tara, we see eight small beside each of whom is a person and a symbol of misery from which it will save the goddess. Help goddess occurs on two levels - physically and spiritually. That's what they write about Tibetan sources: "There are eight internal and eight external obstacles, which are grouped in pairs: affection, like a river, anger, like fire, ignorance, like the elephant, envy, this snake is pride, like a lion, avarice, like iron circuit, false views, like a thief, and doubt, like the cannibal. " Ignorant people are crying out for the Green Tara, with a prayer for protection from these natural disasters, people are hoping for her spiritual help to overcome these internal defilements. We present thangka brush Alvdis NN Rutien; picture painted in the technique nagtan (on a black background), and the figure of Tara is completely spelled out in color. This is a very rare image of the merciful deity nagtane.
The iconography of twenty one form of Green Tara is the embodiment of "Prayer for the twenty-one Tara", a member of the Tara Tantra, where each image personifies every verse of prayer. Seven poems (and seven Tar) associated with its legendary qualities, seven - with its angry essences and seven - with its superior enlightenment is possible. Here is the prayer.
Goddess Sitatapatraparadzhitu should be regarded as the hypostasis of Tara, corresponding to the embodiment of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, called the "Lord of the white umbrella."
White umbrella, which holds the goddess who is one of eight good posters. According to legend, when Shakyamuni was staying still an ascetic and was terribly emaciated woman named Sujata offered him milk, and the future Buddha saw on the surface reflection of eight characters (Wheel of Law, lotus, endless knot, white umbrella, the standard of victory, goldfish bowl and pan) and realized that it was a sign that he is close to its goal. White umbrella heat destroys sinful desires. This umbrella is the main attribute of the goddess in her various guises, from one dome to the two-armed tysyacheglavoy, thousand-, tysyachenogoy.
In this extraordinary complexity and beauty of form of its many heads successively red, yellow, white, green and red, and on top - the angry blue, the color heads symbolize her power over the five cardinal points, including center. All of her left hand holding an arrow, all right - Wheel of Law. It tramples underfoot the hosts of demons, demi-gods and dragons. Images of the countless eyes cover her body as a symbol of its ubiquity. In two hands joined at the chest, it keeps the Wheel of Law, white umbrella and arrow. In her diadem - the image of thousands of Tathagata.
YN Roerich gives her anthem, composed, according to legend, Tsonkhapoy. The hymn is used Tibetan name of the goddess - Dukkar.
- "Victorious ushnisha" - embodies the enlightened mind of all Buddhas. It is an emanation of Amitabha, or whose image she holds in the upper right hand or Vairochana whose image is placed in her hair. It belongs to the Kriya-tantra.
Its central face white as a white lotus, right - the color of gold, and the left - sapphire blue. The expression of those slightly angry. Her lower right hand in the mudra of generosity, the left - in the chest in a sign of fearlessness, top left - in the mudra threat, bottom left - in the mudra of contemplation holds a jar of the elixir of immortality. Its attributes (besides the) - bow and arrow, visvavadzhra, hook and loop (the latter is an attribute of wrathful deities, which is associated with a gnevnostyu the goddess).
When her meditation visualizing the white syllable OM on the forehead, a red AH at the throat and a blue HUM in the center of the chest or heart, with the image of Vairochana in her hair.
The goddess is conquered death and is part of a triad of gods of longevity.
HEART OF ARYAN Prajnaparamita
Distinguishing thoughts, energy and consciousness are empty.
Now we touch on a little angry goddesses.
Many of the dakini is prajna idam, as already mentioned Vajravarahi, "Diamond Pig" - Prajna Samvary. Its Sanskrit name - Vajra or Vadzhradakini. She dances on the outstretched body of the god delusion. To the right of her head is the anthropomorphic pigs. This is an extremely important element of symbolism, as the personification of pig ignorance, and the inclusion of the symbol errors in the iconography of the goddess means to overcome their erroneous views, one should not simply cut off them from themselves, but on the contrary - to transform into force of compassion, and pure good.
Usually portrayed as a dakini beautiful naked women or ugly old women, and women with animal heads. Attributes dakinis - Rod Khatvanga, grigug and Gabala. They wear a crown and a necklace of skulls, their bodies are covered with innumerable necklaces of human bones.
Numerous legends about dakini collected in a book A.David-Neel, "Mystics and Magicians in Tibet."
("Air-spirits") - is often the local goddess, assimilated Buddhism. The main type of legends, where they appear - this is a story about how the dakini is a hermit meditator and offer him the essence of spiritual practice. For example, the Naro Dakini (skrt. Sarva-Budha - "Vseprosvetlennaya") is associated with mahasiddhas Naropa, who received from her spiritual knowledge and created a ritual of her worship. She - the patron of the famous Sakya Monastery.
About Shariputra! Therefore, all dharmas are empty and devoid of signs, not born and do not disappear, not polluted and not pure, not increasing the number and did not decrease.
About Shariputra! Therefore, in emptiness no form, no feelings, no discriminative thought, no energy, no consciousness, no eyes, no ears, no nose, no tongue, no body, no mind, no visible, no sound, no smell, no taste, no palpable, no dharmovogo element ... No vision dhatu, no dhatu of consciousness. There is no ignorance, there is no cessation of ignorance, no old age and death, there is no cessation of aging and death.
Similarly, there is no suffering, no origin of suffering, no cessation of suffering, there is no way to end suffering, there is no wisdom, no progress and no unattained.
About Shariputra! Accordingly, for the Bodhisattva gains based on transcendent wisdom this profound and abiding in it, they have no barriers and gloominess, and, having gone from delusions, they achieved complete liberation, nirvana.
Based on this profound transcendent wisdom, all the Buddhas of three times reached the highest and ultimate full "enlightenment."
In accordance with this transcendent wisdom mantra, the mantra of Great Knowledge, the highest mantra, equalizing unequal, mantra, fully relaxing all the suffering, not false, to be truly learned.
Mantra transcendental wisdom is as follows:
OM GATE GATE Bodhi Svaha PARAGATE PARASAMGATE!
About Shariputra! Thus the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas should practice profound transcendent wisdom. "
At this point, Victory came out of his samadhi and voiced his approval of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva-Mahasattva: "Fine, fine, son of good family. That is, similarly, how do you preach, you need to practice deep transcendent wisdom. And that bring joy to all the Tathagata" . So said victorious.
And the venerable Sariputra, the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, the monks, who were about gods, humans, asuras, and rejoiced in the words Triumphant praised his sermon.
Prajnaparamita, no speech, nor thought inexpressible,
Unborn, the unceasing suchness space
Practice facility razlichayusche-samopoznayuschey wisdom
Mother Jai three times - worship!
This speech I have heard: Once Bhagavan was in Rajagriha Mount Gridhrakuta with a great community of monks and a great community of bodhisattvas. At that time Bhagavan immersed in samadhi, called "Deep shine."
And at the same time, Arya Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva practicing contemplation of deep wisdom, beyond the limits, I saw that the five aggregates are naturally clean and empty.
Then, moved by the magic power of the Buddha asked the venerable Shariputra Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara: "Those sons and daughters of good family who want to practice deep transcendent wisdom, as they have to learn?"
Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva Mahasattva replied the venerable Shariputra: "O Shariputra! Those sons and daughters of good family, who wish to practice the profound transcendent wisdom, to contemplate and see, therefore, that the five aggregates are empty by nature.
Form is emptiness, emptiness is form. No forms other than emptiness, emptiness no other than form. Similarly, feelings
I bow to seven million jin, meeting arhat, to all rishami skilled in mantras, before Brahma and Indra, before Mahadeva (Siva) and Narayana (Vishnu), before the ten-Sugata and before all honored. From the crown on his head appeared Sugata spell the word by which we sing the prayer of St. Dukkar, commanding a large retinue.
Her noble, emerged from the top of ushnisha Shakiev Lord, who lives in the sacred world of gods, demons invincible knowledge, casting out all the enemies, we call it ushnisha-Sitatapatra, unbeatable by anyone.
I salute you, enlightenment, the only mother Jean's past, present and future, you, whose fame has penetrated everywhere in the three worlds.
I salute you, saving from evil influences of demons and planets, from untimely death and bad dreams, from the dangers posed by weapons and poison, fire and water. Mandala your essence is enormous. You have thousands of head, full of countless thoughts, a thousand hands, holding numerous attributes.
Mistress of all the mandalas in the three worlds, acting through the twenty-two daunting wise, omnipresent, tamed the evil nature, I salute you, the goddess of enchantment, puts the demons to pieces.
In you I find refuge from the fear of untimely death, of sickness, the fear of humans and demons. I implore you to always protect me from all fears.
I beg you just at the thought of your gait to release me from the gods, devas, nagas, snakes, Asuras, demons, and those evil beings who steal the light, and to rescue the child from the womb of the mother, feeding raw meat and blood.
If through any door can enter Thieves and to deprive us of our wealth - to destroy them, smite them flaming dagger.
Because I find refuge in you, enlightenment, which have many wise, as I say my prayers and live in peace, let all my wishes come true.
You, goddess Dukkar, born of the crown on his head Sugata puts into dust legions of demons and evil spirits, do so on divnosiyayuschaya enlightenment to spread teachings. Grant that we received the blessing of Demchog Dukkar born of ushnisha Compassionate Sugata, which kills anyone who prevents the spread of good law, which brings happy results.
OM! I prostrate before the great transcendent deliverer!
Praise to Tara, swift and fearless,
Whose eyes are shining like lightning
Born from a lotus in the ocean of tears
Avalokiteshvara, the protector of the three worlds.
Praise be to thee, whose face is like
Hundred autumn moons gathered together,
And shines a blinding light,
Like one thousand constellations.
Praise You, born of the golden-blue lotus,
Whose hands are decorated with lotus
Flavor of giving, effort and good works,
JUNIOR deities and spirits
Buddhist pantheon of deities assimilated many non-Buddhist origin, both Indian and local. Veneration of the younger deities play a significant role in the culture of Tibet, Mongolia and Buryatia, the pictures they usually appear in the Parivar deities.
("Keepers of the four corners of the earth") were mentioned as we already have three sons Vayshravany. Vayshravana - yakshas king, guardian of the north, represented zheltotelym with mongoose and a banner; Virupaksha - the king of the Nagas, the guardian of the west, is portrayed krasnotelym, its attributes - access and a snake; Dhrtarastra - the king of the Gandharvas, the guardian of the east, Belotelov, with lute in hand, Virudhaka - kumbhandov king (a kind of mountain spirits), the guardian of the south, sinetely, with sword in hand.
One legend about their origin, we already know. In the early texts the Buddha tells a different legend. This ancient Indian myth about the enmity of the two kings of the Nagas and two eagles, Garuda, which was bloody, but it ended when all four became disciples of the Buddha, and he put Garuda protect the north and west of the world, Nagas - the south and east.
Eagle Garuda and serves as one of the lesser deities, and as an independent god. His devotion to Buddhism, is due to the role played the eagle in Hinduism (vahana god Vishnu) and the pre-Buddhist beliefs of Tibet (totem clan Bya, where there was a royal dynasty). Indonesian Garuda - the enemy of the serpent, and as in Buddhism, the snake - a symbol of malice and other vices, the Garuda is the embodiment of spiritual forces that are emerging from these vices. Soaring Garuda symbolizes the human mind, striving for enlightenment. That is why he is depicted at the top of the electrons of the Buddhas.
As we saw during our study of mythology and iconography of Tibetan Buddhism, nagas occupy a dual position, which corresponds to the ambivalence of the snake in the world of mythology, he stands as the embodiment of what the forces of evil and death, as the giver of treasure and the defender. Therefore, on the throne of the Buddha near the Garuda - the enemy Nagas - there are two girls Nagin, whose serpent's tail and snakes in her hair.
The number of personal spiritual patrons are five Lha - five personal rights defenders, living inside his body over a lifetime. Their composition is as follows: Zhang-lha lives left armpit, Yul-lha - on top, Gra-lha - on the right shoulder, Srong-lha - the heart, Pho-lha - armpit to the right.
The paintings in the center is the Shang-lha. He rides a deer without a saddle. In his right hand arrow with an eagle feather, adorned with mirror and ribbons in his left hand a golden mirror. According to Sadhana, his hair should be decorated with a crescent and a sink. Pink clouds behind him symbolize the combination of the elements fire and wind. Shang-lha protects from poverty and is embodied as a bat.
Yul-lha rides in golden armor, sending an arrow to the sun. On his chest mirror. He defender of native rights and the place is embodied as a set of friends. Yul-lha grants wishes, brings success, health, happiness and peace in the family and provides well-being while traveling.
Gra-lha holding a spear with a banner and a lasso. It protects from enemies and lawsuits and is embodied, or as a guru, or as a hawk, a wolf or a wild yak. Gra-lha cares that things were going well, stay healthy, protects them from bad word of mouth.
Srong-lha rides a black horse, he wore a suit of armor with a mirror on his chest. In his right hand a spear with a banner, left he holds the reins. He lives defender guarding a man at birth. His special honor at the birthday celebration. It protects them from untimely death, the termination type, gives longevity and a happy life.
Pho-lha holds in his right hand a golden dish with jewels. He defender's paternal family, and is embodied as any man - a relative of his father. It protects against all physical diseases and mental suffering, he destroys the obstacles to success.
The absence of differences between the Little and Great Vehicle
King Trisong Detsen brought great teacher Padmakara mandala in gold and said:
Oh, wonder! Great Teacher, I beg you to teach a method of practice, which shows that there is no contradiction between the Little and Great Vehicle.
The teacher replied:
Emaho! Great king, king to be born again and have a perfect human body, endowed with the merits - a great rarity, but because it is very important to be able to govern the realm of the Dharma. In worldly matters you can edit with all the harshness, but it is harmful to all living beings, so it's important to practice bodhicitta.
In order to take the path of liberation, you must have a sense of shame and modesty, avoiding evil deeds, so it is important to observe the vows and promises, not breaking them.
All living creatures deserve compassion, so be free from bias against new acquaintances. It is important to bring your entire entourage, subjects and relatives of the Dharma and to support them in it.
Such things as food and wealth, never in excess, so it is important to use them for the benefit of the Dharma, not allowing them to be spent in vain, becoming prey to enemies and evil spirits. Not having faith and devotion, you can not get the essence of verbal instructions, so it's important to honor the teachers of the transmission line and serve them with faith, devotion and reverence. That teacher has shown the wisdom of Buddhahood is present in you, so it is important to ask the teacher, holding a line of oral transmission, oral instructions, and then put them into practice.
If you pursue only common goal, your body, speech and mind are no residue trapped in worldly affairs, it is important to skillfully refuse unwanted intercourse and go to ritod.
Parents, brothers, sons and spouses - they are only temporary companions. You will not be together forever, so it is important to give up attachment, and to refrain from the society of women, the root of samsara.
The present-day all your experiences, different feelings of pleasure and pain - is superficial and unreal, so it is important to realize that all existing and manifesting itself devoid of independent existence as a magical illusion or a dream.
The mind is like unbroken horse that is racing at full speed anywhere, so it's important to always keep on the alert and attentive awareness.
The nature of the mind, which is not exactly determine the original wakefulness, the natural and self-existing: it is important to look at itself and recognize its nature.
When the mind has attached, he knew no rest, so it is important to relax your body and mind from the inside, and leave a note in its natural state.
Any inventions and inventions - this is a double fallacy of your mind, so it's important to relax the unrestrained flow of ideas by giving them free in their natural state.
All efforts and attempts to achieve something roped desires, so it is freed from the effort and desire, allow their thoughts to clear up by itself.
Emaho! Listen, O king! If you practice the way it was said, then you will not find any contradiction between any of the Great and Little chariots, nor between Mantra and Analytical Chariot Chariot - so remember the same about this, great king!
At the end of the era, the great king, you presechesh flow and complete degeneration of samsara. In thee as the sun rises original wakefulness Buddhahood, and you will always act for the benefit of sentient beings.