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The Revelation of the Genius Hazrat
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Buddhists believe the most important source of information about early Buddhism religious writings, which were recorded by the beginning of our era in Pali in Ceylon and known as the Tipitaka (Tiritaka) - "three baskets." Complete set of these writings in the early records found.

In the last century began collecting what remained in the monasteries of Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Nepal, as well as (in translation into appropriate languages) in Tibet, China, Mongolia and Japan. In 1871, Mandalay (Burma) was convened V Buddhist cathedral, where 2400 monks - experts in canon - by checking the various lists and translations have developed an updated text of the Tipitaka, which had been cut then to 729 specially made marble slabs. For each slab was built miniature single peaked white hramik. Standing in orderly rows were hramiki temple complex Kutodo - a kind of small town library, repository of the canon. Thanks Kutodo and very similar with another temple complex - Sandamani containing comments to the Tipitaka, Mandalay has become one of the most revered Buddhist sites around the world.

In the late XIX and early XX century. Many of the texts included in the Tipitaka were translated into European languages ​​and published, becoming accessible to a wide range of researchers.

Tipitaka. The core of the Tipitaka, apparently, happened before the time of Asoka (ie, before the 3rd century BC. Oe.) Fixation of the canon was written in Ceylon about 80 BC. Oe. Tipitaka includes a wide variety of content and form of the product. This monastic collections of rules of conduct (Vinaya Pitaka,), and various religious and moralistic tales (Sutta Pitaka-) and religious-philosophical treatises (Abhidhamma Pitaka-). Analysis of texts made it possible to establish the approximate time of their compilation.

Vinaya Pitaka, (Vinaypitaka), or "basket of the statute" - the most ancient part of the canon. In this part of the canon Kutodo has 111 marble slabs. Included in her five books set out the rules of behavior and lifestyle of Buddhist monks and laymen, the conditions of admission to the monastic community, and exceptions to it, the details of the organizational structure of the community and its history. Although the language of all these rules and requirements are attributed to the Buddha Shakyamuni, the experts believe that most members of the Vinaya Pitaka-works formed no earlier than the III. BC, ie, a maximum of two centuries before their initial written fixation. Patimokkha (Patimokkha-sutta, Skt. Pratimoksa-sutra) is the oldest and the main text of the Vinaya Pitaka,. She - the oldest part of the entire canon. Its contents - a list of offenses committed by the monks, and imposed penalties for them. What follows is composed of two books Suttavibhanga (Suttavibbhanga) - Patimokkhe comments.

The next book is called Khandhaka (Khandhaka), divided into two parts - Mahavaggu (Mahavagga) and Kullavaggu (Cullavagga). The first part is the history of the Buddhist monastic community, from the legendary time of attaining enlightenment Gautama. Describes in detail the main ceremony and celebrations in the community, the rules of conduct of monks during the day, gathering the community during the rainy season. Kullavagga - continued Maxavaggi. The focus is paying the penalties imposed on monks for various offenses. It also speaks of an apostate from the monastic life, and describes the first two Buddhist church.

Papuvapa (Parivara) sets out a mnemonic device to facilitate the memorization of numerous rules and prohibitions.

The second part of the Tipitaka - the Sutta Pitaka-(Suttapitaka), or "basket teachings." This is the most extensive part of the canon. She was devoted to Kutodo 410 plates. It consists of five collections, setting forth the ideology of Buddhism in the form of parables and conversations, which are also attributed to the Buddha or his close disciples. The collection includes Khuddaka-Nikaya 15 books, some of which enjoy particular popularity. Among them, the Dhammapada, which in a short verse said the most important questions of doctrine. Suttanipata contains poems ethical content, etc. Of particular interest Theragatha (Theragatha) and Therigatha (Therigatha), or the chants of monks and nuns - is also one of the oldest works of the canon. It is important for the study of early Buddhism and a collection of Jataka (Jataka), which includes stories about the reincarnation of Buddha. They have the character of moral exhortations emanating from the Buddha himself. Modern science has established that the basis is not the original Buddhist writings and works of Indian folklore, adapted for visual preaching Buddhism. They are important as a source of information about the conditions of social life in ancient India.

Finally, the third part of the canon - the Abhidhamma Pitaka-(Abhidhammapitaka), or "basket explain the teachings (the law)." It is located in Kutodo 208 plates. It consists of seven books of religious and philosophical nature, on account of the development and attributed to the Buddha mind. This is the latest part of the canon. Many of the schools of Buddhism and do not recognize it and the original source of the canon did not include.

Is the idea of ​​religious salvation, the transition from earthly life to nirvana, that is, in some other, unearthly state, indeed the main idea of ​​Buddhism? Sure. Religious Buddhist literature puts into the mouth of the mythical founder of Buddhism, the following words: "Just as the ocean has only one taste - the taste of salt, and my teaching has only one taste - the taste of salvation." All early sources point out that the Buddha preached the necessity and possibility of reaching each other being personal and eternal as opposed to volatility, doom, death of all that we perceive as real, tangible, sensual world. "I'm all-knowing, - says the Buddha to his disciple Upak - I have no teacher, no one is me in the world of gods and men, and no creature like me. I'm holy in this world, I am a teacher, I am one - the Buddha himself absolute . I got the rest (by way of redemption of all the passions) and got nirvana. To establish a kingdom of truth, I'm coming to town Kasis (Benares), I'll beat the drum of immortality in the darkness of this world. " Benares sermon, not without reason, regarded as the first, but it is also the most accurate and complete statement of the main teachings of Buddhism, beginning with the words: "Open your ears, the monks: immortality (Amata) won by me." The entire first sermon - the rationale for the salvation of the suffering of samsara (the world of sense) and opening the way to salvation. The sermon ends with the words: "When my mind can not be lost, and this is my last birth, so I will not be born."

Stressing the importance of disclosing the world the way to salvation in otherness, Mahavagga - the most important part of the most ancient section of the canon of the Vinaya Pitaka, - describes the reaction of the universe at Benares sermon: "... the totality of the ten thousand worlds hesitated, trembled, shuddered, and infinite powerful light penetrated peace, light, surpassing the light that could be produced by the divine power of the devas' (ie the gods).

The idea of ​​the need for religious salvation, leaving samsara constantly, in various embodiments and repeated in other texts, and Vinaya Pitaka Sutta Pitaka-. So, the conversation with the Buddha's monks of the impermanence of the body ends in this conclusion: "... lack of passion makes his (human) free, and when he is freed, he realizes that he is free, and he understands that the new revival of escape, that holiness achieved a complete that the debt is made, and there is no more return to this world. " The main task which must execute people - to achieve salvation from the bondage of the world. It is highlighted that this salvation is not achieved at the time of physical death of the creature. In keeping with an ancient religious tradition Vedic religion, Buddhism accepts unreservedly the doctrine of the transmigration of souls, or, as they say about reincarnation: after this existence after death or after a time living creature comes into a new form of "being", as disgusting, like all previous ones.

Agony, suffering, and domination of evil in advance declared major qualitative characteristics of any being, existence and suffering are identical. Buddhism places the responsibility for the evil of the devil, to justify God, but smogshego a perfect world. The inevitability of evil in the world of the senses Buddhism interprets as a manifestation of a "space" of suffering, eternally inherent in every being.

The greatness and the goodness of the supreme deity, who is due to his personal merit in the former all-perfect reincarnation and all-wise being a Buddha, is not to create peace, and in the path of its destruction, the victory over evil, which is impossible without overcoming of being itself.History of Buddhism
History of Buddhism began in the day when Gautama Shakyamuni Buddha became "turned the wheel of dharma," ie, began preaching his doctrine. This happened in 543 or 525 BC. Oe. 1st date follows the Buddhas. tradition, the 2nd is generally accepted in science. During the life of the Buddha by his followers were one of the plentiful. sects to-heaven called wanderers community (parivradzhika). The members of the community were etoi a wandering life, came together only during the rainy season (Varsha), settling, or built their huts (Awas), or in buildings and parks (Aram), donated his rich patrons. These buildings were called Vihara, later became known as the monastery's buildings. Buddha preached his doctrine to a relatively small area (southern part of the province of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar province in present-day. India), Ch. arr. around the cities of Rajagriha, Pataliputra (Patna), and in the Kapilavastu Bodh Gaya where he attained enlightenment. Before his death, the Buddha asked the monks to remember the two conditions that guarantee the preservation of his teaching for many centuries: not quarrel over minor and petty regulations of discipline in the community, respecting the Naib. substantial instruction zealously strive for enlightenment

Most scientists believe that the uncertainty of the first condition has become one of the main reasons for the schism of the Sangha. The texts suggest that disputes over disciplinary rules Vinaya led to the division of Buddhism in many schools. But there is a more important reason Originally. split into two communities - and sthaviravada mahasanghika - is related to the personality of the Buddha. Who is the Buddha - Cosmic. emanation or earthly being? - That this issue has become Ch. cause separation of the Buddhas. community to those who saw the Buddha being the earth and the teacher, and those who saw him as a deity. nature. Evidence of the doctrinal differences between the followers of the Buddha manifested only in the beginning. Mr. Oe. when it became possible to compare the texts of the Pali canon of the first mahayanistskimi treatises in Sanskrit. Traditionally, the history of early Buddhism can be traced through the assembly of monks - Cathedrals (Sangita), on to the teachings of the Buddha-ryh restored from memory. Immediately after the death of the Buddha who accompanied his students (500 men) held the 1st Council (recitation from memory) for a rum remember all the details from the life of teachers and adopted a set of disciplines. rules (Vinaya Pitaka,) and a set of statements Teachers (Sutta Pitaka-), including, in one version, 80 000, according to others - 84 000 utterances. All the monks, except one, named Purana, recognize their validity. Thus, at the first council a split of the Sangha. It has been over a hundred years. Little Buddhas. communities existed already then. in India. Once again, disputes arose between the orthodox. monks who claimed that knowledge of the Buddha's teaching in its entirety is enlightenment, and the followers of the Puranas, is considered true by the knowledge of gods. Buddha-nature. The monks gathered in Vaishali for the 2nd council, on a rum took place finish. schism of the Sangha; orthodox. Monks joined the school sthaviravada, while their opponents have formed a school mahasangikov to-heaven was divided into several. sects. The word "mahasangika" means belonging to the "Great Assembly" (Mahasangiti), because at this council and attended by members of the Sangha and the laity, that is already in the 4th century. BC. Oe. demonstrated a fundamental difference between the two directions of Buddhism: Theravada monastic community is represented, Mahayana - a mixed community of monks and laymen.

An important role in the development of Buddhism as a world religion has played a king Ashoka, during the reign of to-cerned is considered the "golden age" in the history of Buddhism. As ruler of a vast empire Ashoka called the "vsepravitelem over Jambudvipa" (the mainland, inhabited by people). Asoka did not immediately become a follower of Buddha. As the heir to the throne, he worked with mentors diff. orthodox and heretical schools. directions, and then visiting the Buddhas. community, learn the basics of the Buddha's teachings and became upasaka - secular follower of Buddhism. After becoming emperor, he initially did not pay particular attention to the sangha, but then began to actively support the Buddhists. With his assistance, took third in the cathedral Pataliputra (253 BC. E..) Ch. feature of religion. Ashoka's policy was toleration, a swarm he held for almost the entire period of his reign (adzhivikam gave the cave, the main rivals, the Buddhists, and sent their representatives to the community of Jains and Brahmins to). Policy of toleration allowed Ashoka avoid a conflict with a strong layer of the Brahmins, with adzhivikami, Jains and at the same time strengthen Buddhism, to-ing, through the concept of sole ruler - Chakravartins, was ideological. the basis of centralization. policy in the multinational. Empire. At the 3rd council was dominated by monks sthaviravady school, to-rye Ashok managed to convince of the truth of his understanding of the teachings of the Buddha. Cathedral blessed the content of one part of the future of the canon, called Kathavatthu in a rum discusses the teachings of all 18 schools of Buddhism and approved by the rightness of views sthaviravadinov. In what is becoming a major Kathavatthu legalized treatise Theravada. Following Ashoka around him began to take on Buddhism: the construction of monasteries and religious sites, increased donations, the number of followers. The texts of the Pali canon and the Sri Lankan chronicles, notes that the heretics, impostors, the monks became more than the true believers. As a result, 7 years in a monastery or have committed disciplinary rules read to the monks uposatha, since the real monks have refused to perform the ceremony in the presence of heretics. Only after the intervention of Ashoka Theravada was declared the true teachings of the Buddha and the monks who disagreed with him expelled from the Sangha. In the Pali sources mention that the king himself. was present at the council, has excluded from the Sangha 60 thousand monks heretics, 3rd cathedral occupies a special place in the history of Buddhism. It was finish. separation of Buddhism in two directions, and then sharply deteriorated relations between theravadinami and their opponents, it was decided to send the Buddhas. missionaries into all known at the time of the world. In particular, the Sri Lankan chronicles tell of the missions to Kashmir and Gandhara (Peshawar District, Pakistan), the country ions (Hellenic State of, North. India), in areas of the Himalayas, the Suvarnabhumi (western coast of Indochina), Sri Lanka . Far. history of Buddhism is most often associated with the struggle between supporters of the Mahayana and Hinayana, but it is in principle wrong, because the term "Mahayana" (big car) appeared at the turn of 1.2 cc. Mr. Oe. and then the followers of the Mahayana became known theravadinov hinayanistami, ie there is "a small chariot." Theravada was formed immediately after the Buddha's death, it formed the most intimate and fanatical of his followers, to-rye sought to preserve every word, every gesture and every episode from the life of the Master. That's why attach such significance theravadiny periodically convened councils, on a newly-ryh Mr. newly restored life and teachings of the Buddha. Last. Cathedral, the 6th of its kind, was conducted in 1954-1956 in the city of Mandalay (Myanmar). The attainment of enlightenment was conceived as a literal adherence to the image of the Buddha's life and his practice of meditation to-rye often led to fatal. The school was theravadinov monastic org-tion, which depends on the laity, but not focused on them. Among the disciples of the Buddha were those to-rye believe in deities. Teachers essence, considered him a god who took human form. It should be noted that the perception of an extraordinary man in line drevneind deity. tradition that a swarm under the outer shell of a mortal body could hide the deities. body, affordable eyes a true believer. Buddhism generally mark a key role in the formation of Sarvastivada sowing. variant of Buddhism, a school to-cerned, and gave the teachings of Buddhism supermarket. character. School Sarvastivada separated from the Theravada, and Theravada are almost unchanged until crust. sp. Sarvastivadiny first tried to explain the phenomena of life and enlightenment of the categories of dharmas, which are constantly changing combinations of smaller. phys. and spiritual principles (rupa-nama). In contrast to the Theravada school Sarvastivada first took up Philosophy. justification not only the Buddha's teachings, but also religion. practice. Introduction to Philosophy Originally. Buddha's teaching has allowed widely used in the Buddhist nebudd. ideas to create the concept of consciousness, which undergoes diff. changes in the motion on the levels of existence of the Buddhas. systems philosophy. In the beginning. Mr. Oe. Sarvastivada school has been recognized and supported by the rulers of the Kushan Empire. Comp. sowing. buddhas. tradition, the third Kushan king Kanishka (2. n. e.) in Kashmir, possibly in Gandhara, was held the 4th of Buddhas. Council (not recognized theravadinami) for a rum-attended by 500 monks diff. schools and sects of Buddhism, with the exception of the orthodox schools of Theravada. Most members of this assembly were the followers of Sarvastivada. Monks welcomed the new edition of the Vinaya and commentary on the Vinaya, Sutra and Abhidharma. These texts were written in Sanskrit, copper sheets and walled in was built in honor of the assembly mortar. To the time of Kanishka include the creation of such important. buddhas. treatises and works as Mahavastu, Lalitavistara, Avadanasataka, Divyaavadana, Lankavatara, Saddharmapundarika: the latter became fundamental to many Chinese. and Jap. schools of Buddhism. During this period, worked such great Buddhas. thinkers and poets like Ashvaghosha, Aryashura, Vasumitra and others, was established canon sarvastivadinov, preserved in the kit. and Tib. translations. Creating Buddhas. canonical. lit-ry, first (in the context. 1st millennium BC) in the local languages ​​of India and Sri Lanka, then 1. BC in Pali, and finally to 1-2 cc. Mr. Oe. Sanskrit was a qualitatively new stage in the spread of Buddhism, for the opportunity to translate the Buddhas. texts in other languages ​​and study Buddhism directly from original sources and not from the words of the missionaries. Already in the context. 1 - the beginning. 2. Mr. Oe. buddhas. texts have appeared in China. The rulers of the Wei and Jin Dynasties (220 - 420) supported Buddhism, in 399 of the West went Chanyanya large expedition led by a monk Fasyanom to search for and collection of Buddhas. texts. For 14 years the Chinese have visited more than 30 countries, including the West., Sev., Med. and East. India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, and brought many sutras. In India, followers of the two met Fasyan mahayanistskih major schools - the Madhyamika and Yogacara. The first preached the middle path between the visible and invisible phenomena of being, metaphysically grounded theory of emptiness (Sunyata). The views of Madhyamaka in the literature Prajnaparamita. The second stated that all existence is a product of consciousness. In a text Yogacara Lankavatara Sutra the Buddha is described as a triple Cosmic expiration. body (trick), and in the text analyzes the causes clotting Alayavidzhnyany and the expiration of consciousness. The texts of both schools have gained popularity in China. In the history of Buddhism can be traced many of the patterns and peculiarities of ind. Sc. religion. thought. Philos. study the Buddha's teachings sarvastivadinami open space for permanent debate between the followers of diff. Buddhist schools, especially among violent and Mahayanists theravadinami. The tradition of scholars dispute arose during the creation of the Upanishads and in the rise of the Buddhas. convents, monasteries, like the famous universities of Nalanda and Vikramasila which defended its interpretation of the teachings of the Buddha's best and brightest images. preachers. Already in the 4th century. Mr. Oe. was created by treaty Shaptadasabhumi - shastra in 15 tons, 7 of the k-focused art ryh dispute. He was later supplemented treatises on Buddha. logic of a most-recognized ryh are still tracts Dignagi and Dharmakirti. In the 5th century. Mr. Oe. there were such a comprehensive encyclopedia of Buddha's teachings, as the work of Buddhaghosa "Visuddhimagga" in Pali and Vasubanhu "Abhidharmakhosha" in Sanskrit, in a first-ryh cosmological was presented. model of life. In the 5th century. Mr. Oe. activated Buddhism in China, where the monk and his disciples Kushradzhiva transferred Buddhas. sutras in Chinese. language, resulting in the Buddha's teachings became extremely popular first in the enlightened nobility, and later as a result of syncretism of Buddhism and Taoism from the people. In the Sui Dynasty and Thai (581 - 907), a period of prosperity Buddhism throughout the country were built monasteries and temples, cave temples were created in the k-ryh inhabited by monks, hermits, a pure Chinese. schools of Buddhism: Tiantai-tsung, Tszintu, Hua-yen-tsung, Chan and others, formed the cult of the goddess Kuan-yin (feminine form of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva of compassion), Buddhism had an influence on philosophy, ethics, literature and arts of China pv. In the 5th century. Buddhism in China has penetrated into Korea, and in 6. in Japan. In subsequent centuries there were various old and new schools of Buddhism, today they number several dozen. Noticeably quickened communication between Chinese and Indian civilizations, has increased the intensity of cultural interaction. 5-7 cc. Important changes have taken place in the public mind of India, which largely was due to religious and philosophical ideas of Buddhism, which are gradually absorbed by the numerous religious systems adapted to the caste structure of Indian society and in the aggregate known as the orthodox (the recognized authority of the Vedas) Hinduism. Complex fusion of ideas associated with the cults of Vishnu, Shiva and his consort Parvati (also known under the name of Kali, Uma, and others), Buddhism, and Bhatia (by the overwhelming love of God), gave birth in North India (Bengal), a new religion - Tantrism, which subsequently divided into Hindu and Buddhist versions of the last entered into Tibet and became the basis for a new direction of Buddhism - Vajrayana. In the 8th century. in Beijing was established Tantric school, after learning that a Japanese monk Kukai created in his country in the early 9th century. similar Shingon-shu. In the middle of a thousand lost mass support Buddhism in India, preserved in the form of small communities, inscribed in the Indian caste structure, but is widespread abroad, where he was its transformation into a world religion is not so much because of the wealth of philosophical doctrines and literature , but because of the principle of non-infringement of local cultural and religious traditions, including mythology, traditional worship, social structures of those countries where it is accepted as the state religion, and subsequent mutual adaptation of Buddhism and of these traditions.

Opening speeches against religion
Doreligioznaya era
The emergence of Judaism
Jainism and Sikhism
World Religions
The rise of Islam
Abroad Europe
Norway
United Kingdom
Netherlands
Switzerland
Spain
Yugoslavia
Romania
Russian Orthodox Church
Orthodoxy
Social conception of Russian Orthodoxy
Seven periods of the history of Christianity
Birth rannebuddistskoy Sangha in India
Cosmology of Buddhism
The practice of the Bodhisattva
THE LEGEND OF BUDDHA
Mid-I millennium BC marked by the emergence of new religions - Buddhism, widely spread in India and abroad and which has had an enormous influence on the ideology, culture and lifestyle of many Asian nations.

Ask a Buddhist about how there was a religion, which he should, and you get the answer that more than two and a half thousand years ago, it heralded the people of Shakyamuni ("hermit of the Shakya tribe '). Any dedicated to Buddhism book you will find a religious tradition based on a story about the life of Siddhartha, wandering preacher who was called Shakyamuni Buddha, and who called himself (Sanskrit: Buddha), which means "enlightened supreme knowledge", "shaded the truth." Religious Buddhist literature reports that after an infinite number of incarnations, accumulating in each of these virtues, the Buddha came to earth to perform a rescue mission - to indicate beings escape from suffering. He chose for his embodiment of the image of Prince Siddhartha Gautama of a noble family. Rod was a member of this tribe Shakya, who lived in 500-600 BC in the valley of the Ganges, on average, his flow.

Like the gods of other religions, the Buddha could not appear on the earth, like ordinary people. Siddhartha's mother - the wife of the ruler of the Shakya Maya (Mahamaya, or "The Great Maya") - saw in a dream, that it has entered into the side of a white elephant. After the allotted time, she gave birth to a baby who has left her body is also an unusual way - through the armpit. Immediately issued to them cry heard all the gods of the universe, and rejoiced the arrival of the one who can stop the suffering of being. Sage Asita predicted that the accomplishment of a great religious newborn feat. Infant was named Siddhartha, which means "fulfilled its purpose."

The boy grew up surrounded by beautiful things, and it never let out of the palace. The king, Siddhartha's father, tried to keep her son in the dark about the ills of life, but he eventually learned of the existence of disease, old age and death. Siddhartha tired of solitary life in the palace and the prince wanted to know the world outside its walls. One day Siddhartha told his coachman to bring it over the fence of the palace. The resulting impression is completely changed him. King hopes were defeated by four signs, which tells beddiyskaya tradition. Tsarevich began to think about what makes people unhappy, but his life is so hard. And at age 29, Siddhartha left his home, refused to become governor, left his wife and son to try to find the answer to his tormenting questions. For seven years he was a hermit, hoping through the study of sacred texts, talking to the wise, torture of the flesh to find a path leading to salvation, but only by abandoning the ascetic self-torture, as a result of deep thought he had reached the desired: he opened the truth, and he found his way to the final "Salvation" It happened on the banks of the river Nairandzhany, in the town Uruvilva, in the present Bodh Guy (Bihar) sitting under the sacred bodhi tree, Siddhartha learned the "four noble truths."


Buddha's Teachings
THE EMERGENCE OF EXERCISE

The first five people facing a Buddha in a new faith, and became his disciples formed the core of the Buddhist community. Buddha preached the religious teachings, known as "the Buddha's teachings" ("buddhadarshana", "buddhatama") or simply "Dharma" (in the sense of "just law"). Believers were called "bauddhami" - adherent of the Buddha, or sometimes simply "shakyami." Buddha died in his eightieth year, leaving many students and followers.

The basis of the outlook rannebuddistskogo leave the so-called "four noble truths" in the opening and which consisted of "enlightenment" of Gautama Buddha and that he proclaimed in his first sermon Benares. These four truths: the doctrine of suffering (the truth of suffering), the causes of suffering (the truth about the cause of suffering), the termination of suffering (the truth of cessation of suffering) and the path to the cessation of suffering (the truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering)

The whole life according to the teachings of the Buddha, is suffering. "Birth is suffering, old age is suffering, sickness is suffering; connection with disfavor is suffering, failure to achieve desired is suffering ..." The cause of suffering - the attachment to life, a thirst for life. This thirst "leads from rebirth to rebirth." The cessation of suffering is to "resolve this thirst by complete annihilation of desire". A man must suppress my every desire for existence, every desire, passion, all attachment to anything whatsoever.

How can we achieve this destruction of desire? Taught by the last of the "four sublime truths." She speaks of the "Eightfold Path" leading to the cessation of suffering: it is "righteous faith, righteous determination, righteous speech, righteous deeds, the righteous way of life, the righteous desires, righteous thoughts, pious contemplation." Following these "eightfold way" the man reaches perfection in the end, he becomes an arhat, and immersed in the holy nirvana. Nirvana recently, the ideal state to which, according to Buddhist teaching, must seek the sage.

But what is Nirvana? Although this concept is perhaps the central place in the whole of Buddhist philosophy, it was not in her precise, and in Buddhist literature there are different understanding of it. According to some, nirvana is elimination being lean. According to other Nirvana is the cessation of only the available knowledge of life and transition into something else, unknowable being. Whatever it was, nirvana means the termination of the chain of rebirth, which according to traditional Indian views, lessons and Buddhists, is the lot of every living thing.

It is an eternal chain of rebirth is called samsara in Buddhism. It inevitably involves every living thing from one rebirth to another through a continuous series of sufferings. Death does not relieve a person from suffering being, for it is followed by a new birth. Escape from this evil tormenting circle of samsara may only person who through a long series of rebirths to reach the state of Arhat, the holy hermit who know the truth. Reborn, living being can take not only human but also any other form: it can be reborn an animal, plant, an evil spirit, god. But the highest form of degeneration is the birth of this man, because only from this state transition is possible in a perfect state of nirvana. The only means to achieve the status of an arhat, and through him, nirvana, early Buddhism believed a person's own efforts, following the "Eightfold Path". Nobody and nothing can save him, save him from a painful samsara and lead to nirvana, if it does not achieve it himself.
32 sign of the Buddha hands and feet are rounded; feet beautiful setting; fingers webbed; hands and feet as soft as a baby; seven major parts of the body are convex; fingers long; broad heel; massive body, and direct; lap legs are not protruding; hair on his body upward; shin like an antelope; long arms are beautiful; genitals are hidden; skin golden brown; thin skin is tender; each hair curled in the right direction; decorated with a pencil of hair between the eyebrows (urn); upper body of a lion; shoulders rounded in front; broad shoulders; bad taste turns into a pleasant; proportional to the tree as nyagrodha; his crown elevation - ushnisha; beautiful long tongue; voice like the voice of Brahma; cheeks like a lion; very white teeth; straight teeth; tight teeth forty teeth; eyes like sapphire; eye lashes the best;



Buddhism
Buddhism - the oldest of the three world religions. Christianity under him for five, and Islam - for twelve centuries. The bulk of his followers live in the South, Southeast and East Asia: Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Bhutan, China (as well as the Chinese population in Singapore and Malaysia), Mongolia, Korea, Vietnam, Japan, Cambodia, Myanmar (Burma ), Thailand, Laos.

In our country, Buddhism traditionally practiced residents of Buryatia, Kalmykia and Tuva, and in recent years, Buddhist communities emerged in Moscow, St. Petersburg and all major cities of Russia. Since the late XIX - early XX century. followers of Buddhism appeared in Europe and the U.S. today there are almost all more or less significant areas and schools that exist in the East.

The total number of Buddhists in the world is difficult: this kind of census is not held anywhere, but they contradict the ethical and legal standards in many countries. However, it is about to say that there are now more 400 million laypeople, practicing Buddhism, and about 1 million monks and nuns.

Two and a half thousand years ago the Buddha was a unique opportunity to teach, he lived in the heyday of the civilization of northern India and was surrounded by a very gifted students. This gave him the opportunity for 45 years shows the existing road to full disclosure of intelligence that was manifested in a variety of data of the funds. Kangyur - a collection of the Buddha's own words, written after his death - is 108 volumes containing 84,000 helpful teachings. Appeared later comments of the pupils are another 254 volumes, each with a minimum thickness of two centimeters, they are called Tengyur. Because of the wealth of methods and should be understood as the last words of the Buddha, he said, at the age of 80 years, before leaving the body: "I can die happy: I have not left any single teaching in a closed hand. All that is good for you, I have already given ".

It follows from this statement, he gave something that can be directly applied in real life. The questions of why and what he taught, the Buddha always replied: "I teach because you and all beings strive to be happy and want to avoid pain. I teach to how everything is - things as they really are." And while these teachings later became the basis of a number of schools, these schools have in common is that they all, each on its own level of understanding life and teachings of the Buddha are aimed at comprehensive development of man - intelligent use of body, speech and mind.

Because Buddhism is multifaceted and based on experience, not on faith, not to limit the description of its contents. Its features are visible only in comparison with other worldviews. At the same time to approach the teaching of the Buddha is free from too rigid views, as the fullness of his wisdom can not be described as "what is not






The first noble truth: everything is suffering (dukkha)
It is very difficult to exactly translate the concept of "dukkha". Speaking of suffering, we emphasize only the pessimistic view of things, tend to notice only the bad, and do not take into account the good that is in the process we gain experience. It is important to understand that the key, the key word appears the word "experience". The Buddha points out that the idea should be about life in general, that is, to see life in its fullness and complexity - as people live it and not tear of life experience alone the pros and cons. Insight of the Buddha can be understood only in the end when we realize that the first three noble truths together represent a comprehensive analysis of the human condition. Why would we not seek, and how much we would not reach, in the end is not enough for us to feel satisfaction with the progress. Dukkha - is deeply rooted in the soul of every human sense of dissatisfaction with the world in which we can not fulfill our cravings. Either way, not in our power to change the world around and thus achieve self-fulfillment. Rather, we must seek remedy from dissatisfaction within yourself. One of the main reasons for this is that the world - we know from the experience of samsara, as the Buddhists call it - is distinguished volatility. All non-permanent (anigga) in this world, therefore, is subject to constant change This is the second aspect of dukkha, which states in its argument, the Buddha. Variability of the world is its essence, which is the cause of dukkha.
 
 
Mahayana Buddhism
The term "Mahayana" was first used Ashvaghosha in his "Discourse on the awakening of faith in the Mahayana." The basis of the teachings of the Mahayana ("Great Vehicle", a big car, a wide path) - one of the main directions of Buddhism, also called Northern Buddhism, whose followers began to distinguish themselves from followers of Hinayana. It was initiated as an independent direction relate to I in. BC - I in. AD, when the first Mahayana sutra: text-prajna paramitas.

Unlike hinayanistov, Mahayanists called his teaching "broad way", emphasizing the breadth of interpretation of the idea of ​​salvation and the broad scope of the adherents of the Buddhist doctrine. Became the main ideologue of Mahayana, Nagarjuna, who lived in the middle or second half of II century. BC, it continued his younger contemporary Aryadeva. There is no reason to consider Mahayana something completely new, tearing continuity with the Hinayana. It represents the second stage of the religion, the first stage of which was Hinayana. The content of the Mahayana is not limited, however, the material taken from the original hinayanistskogo nucleus. Wherever she found the spread, she had to adapt to the beliefs and faiths, common among the indigenous population, which entailed the borrowing of local mythological scenes and elements of worship, until the enrichment at the expense of the pantheon of local gods and demons. The Buddhist doctrine of reincarnation of the Buddha opened up the possibility of unlimited extension of the pantheon with the help of accession to the local gods, to announce the sponsors of the Buddha. Such a fate, in particular, a number of Vaishnava and Shaiva deities. Were Buddhas and Ganesh, Shiva, Vishnu, the goddess Tara appeared, etc.

One of the important doctrine of the Mahayana doctrine of the bodhisattva is based on bodhicitta (the aspiration to awakening), the Bodhisattva - a being with the ability to become a Buddha, approaching the achievement of nirvana, but out of great compassion for other beings and the world refuses to enter nirvana. In the Mahayana Bodhisattva ideal substitute hinayanistsky - arhatstva achievement. If the teaching of nirvana hinayanistov could reach only the monks, according to Mahayana, best rescue was available and the laity. In the Mahayana cult gradually developed the numerous Bodhisattvas, the most revered of which Avalokitesvara (the symbol of great compassion), Mandzhushri (the personification of wisdom), Tara (the great manifestation of mercy), and others. The cult of bodhisattvas, and the image of Bodhisattva is one of the most important of the essential features of Mahayana Buddhism

Was a completely different interpretation of the image in the Mahayana teachings of the Buddha and the founder of the concept of "Buddha". If the Hinayana Buddha was a real historical figure, indicating the path of the believers and the ways of "saving", the Mahayana, he was regarded as the supreme absolute being, as a fundamental principle of the microcosm, thus probritaya particular metaphysical and religious content. Every living being has the potential to become a Buddha, because it contains a certain particle nature of the Buddha (buddhata).

In contrast, Southern Buddhism, or Theravada (Hinayana), Mahayana is typical for a magnificent cult rite of worship. Changed and lifestyles of the clergy. Disappearing way of life of austerity, asceticism, in particular food and clothing. The monks eat mutton fat, leaving the principle of ahimsa to the theory, but instead they've worn robe elegant and rich robes of an expensive fabric. In place of caves and shelters mastnym were huge, beautiful architecture of the monastery, where the inhabitants to worship and study the scriptures. A vivid image of such a monastery of Nalanda, the remnants of which still exist. In the monasteries studied the scriptures, and composed them there. Mahayana in huge quantities multiplied literature of Buddhism. Tipitaka has been rejected by her, but she went into a huge number of books is not as mahayanistskih completed canon, and in various combinations with the new theological works, mahayanistskie works were written in Sanskrit (the classical literary language of India, etc.), and later translated into Tibetan and Chinese languages, of which there are translations in the ground and reached our time.
 
Buddhist pantheon
According to sources, the Buddha explicitly recognized the existence of the gods: "Gods do exist, a fact that I recognize all over the world in this all agree." Gods should read to please, by all means possible to have to themselves. In the pantheon of ancient gods of past were Buddhist religions of India. Here, a large number of traditional, well-known in the Vedic literature, the names of Indian gods, for example, King yakshas Kubera - the god of wealth, guardian of the treasures of Indra, one of the guardians of peace. Figure and other guardians of the world, albeit with some changes in comparison with the Hindu mythology as the other three guards instead of Indra, Yama and Varuna in Buddhism are the Dhrtarastra, Virudhaka and Virupaksha. Note also the god of Shaqra, the lord of Mount Meru, and living in his world of ten divine trinity. Shakra is good and right being, which sometimes shows signs of quite human - cowardice, greed and naivete, bordering on rudeness. Significance in the Buddhist pantheon Shaqra underlined by the fact that it is in his celestial sphere is Sudharma - Meeting Room of the gods (ie the top of the mountain). Gods gather here every eighth day of the lunar month and on the occasion of festivities and celebrations early. There they listen to a number of sermons and teachings, in addition to these gods, the good kind with regard to man, and a host of Buddhism knows the evil of the gods - the Asuras, the demons that bring people into trouble and hassle. Under Mount Meru live, according to the legends of Buddhist mythology, constantly warring with the gods demons asuras. Besides these mentioned, still naked - poluzmei - half people - and prohibitions.
CHRONOLOGY OF The spread of Buddhism outside India pushed its local religions, a number of new countries and peoples, far from abstract and scholastic philosophizing. Buddhism had to adapt to their domestic and religious and ideological traditions, and accordingly undergo major changes. Buddhism. In IV. Buddhism enters Korea, in VI .- Japan, in VII .- in Tibet, from the XIII to XVI .- in Mongolia, in XVII-XVIII centuries .- in Buryatia and Tuva. In the countries of the Indochinese Peninsula in the II v.n.e (Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand) and then - in the insular part of Southeast Asia - Buddhism has been gaining ground, starting from II. And to the VIII-IX centuries . been very successful in this. In the late XIX - early XX century. he gets to Europe and America.
 
 
КАНОНИЧЕСКАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА БУДДИЗМА

Времена расцвета буддийской религии тесно связаны с появлением литературы и письменности. Еще в глубокой древности (III-IV вв. до н.э) знаменитым Панини была создана грамматика санскритского языка. Разработанные правила языка, словарный фонд, нормы правописания впоследствии помогали налаживанию общения и взаимопонимания самых различных народностей и племен. Именно в этот период на санскрите записаны знаменитые поэмы "Махабхарата" и "Рамаяна", а также трактаты по различным отраслям знаний. Многовековой народной мудростью проникнуты сборники сказок, мифов, басен. Были разработаны основные правила стихосложения. Особое внимание уделяется образному слову, его эмоциональной убедительности и выразительности. Для буддийского миропонимания характерно тяготение к притчам, метафоре и сравнению. Весьма примечательна, неповторима религиозно-философская литература буддизма. Более всего она связана с описанием жизненного пути Будды, с его проповедями и поучениями.
В самой Индии древняя буддийская литература не сохранилась, если не считать наскальных надписей Ашоки, который является самым первым известным науке документом, упоминающим о Будде и его учении - дхарме, написанный в III в. до н.э. Известная сейчас литература буддизма складывалась в течение многих веков не только в Индии, но и в тех странах, куда он проникал, она весьма обширна.
Буддизм подразделяется на "Малую колесницу", буддизм хинаяны (Южная и Юго-Восточная Азия), и "Большую колесницу" или буддизм махаяны (Дальний Восток).
Считается, что священные буддийские книги были написаны монахами хинаяны (тхеравады) на четвертом соборе в Шри-Ланке в I веке до н.э. В них использовался древний разговорный индийский язык пали, на котором говорил Будда. Священные книги были записаны на пальмовых листьях и стали известны как Закон Пали или Типитака. "Типитака" означает "три корзины", что соответствует разделению священных книг на три раздела: Виная-питака (дисциплинарные правила для монахов), Сутта-питака (изречения и проповеди Будды в изложении его любимого ученика Ананды) и Абхидхамма-питака (систематизированное изложение Сутты-питаки, философские тексты).
Обратимся к самому вероучению в том виде, как оно изложено в канонической литературе буддизма, лежащей в основе устной его пропаганды монашеством и популяризации его средствами искусства.
 
 
 
 
 
SACRED BOOKS
Buddhists believe the most important source of information about early Buddhism religious writings, which were recorded by the beginning of our era in Pali in Ceylon and known as the Tipitaka (Tiritaka) - "three baskets." Complete set of these writings in the early records found.

In the last century began collecting what remained in the monasteries of Ceylon, Burma, Siam, Nepal, as well as (in translation into appropriate languages) in Tibet, China, Mongolia and Japan. In 1871, Mandalay (Burma) was convened V Buddhist cathedral, where 2400 monks - experts in canon - by checking the various lists and translations have developed an updated text of the Tipitaka, which had been cut then to 729 specially made marble slabs. For each slab was built miniature single peaked white hramik. Standing in orderly rows were hramiki temple complex Kutodo - a kind of small town library, repository of the canon. Thanks Kutodo and very similar with another temple complex - Sandamani containing comments to the Tipitaka, Mandalay has become one of the most revered Buddhist sites around the world.

In the late XIX and early XX century. Many of the texts included in the Tipitaka were translated into European languages ​​and published, becoming accessible to a wide range of researchers.

Tipitaka. The core of the Tipitaka, apparently, happened before the time of Asoka (ie, before the 3rd century BC. Oe.) Fixation of the canon was written in Ceylon about 80 BC. Oe. Tipitaka includes a wide variety of content and form of the product. This monastic collections of rules of conduct (Vinaya Pitaka,), and various religious and moralistic tales (Sutta Pitaka-) and religious-philosophical treatises (Abhidhamma Pitaka-). Analysis of texts made it possible to establish the approximate time of their compilation.

Vinaya Pitaka, (Vinaypitaka), or "basket of the statute" - the most ancient part of the canon. In this part of the canon Kutodo has 111 marble slabs. Included in her five books set out the rules of behavior and lifestyle of Buddhist monks and laymen, the conditions of admission to the monastic community, and exceptions to it, the details of the organizational structure of the community and its history. Although the language of all these rules and requirements are attributed to the Buddha Shakyamuni, the experts believe that most members of the Vinaya Pitaka-works formed no earlier than the III. BC, ie, a maximum of two centuries before their initial written fixation. Patimokkha (Patimokkha-sutta, Skt. Pratimoksa-sutra) is the oldest and the main text of the Vinaya Pitaka,. She - the oldest part of the entire canon. Its contents - a list of offenses committed by the monks, and imposed penalties for them. What follows is composed of two books Suttavibhanga (Suttavibbhanga) - Patimokkhe comments.

The next book is called Khandhaka (Khandhaka), divided into two parts - Mahavaggu (Mahavagga) and Kullavaggu (Cullavagga). The first part is the history of the Buddhist monastic community, from the legendary time of attaining enlightenment Gautama. Describes in detail the main ceremony and celebrations in the community, the rules of conduct of monks during the day, gathering the community during the rainy season. Kullavagga - continued Maxavaggi. The focus is paying the penalties imposed on monks for various offenses. It also speaks of an apostate from the monastic life, and describes the first two Buddhist church.

Papuvapa (Parivara) presents a mnemonic device to facilitate the memorization of numerous rules and prohibitions.

The second part of the Tipitaka - the Sutta Pitaka-(Suttapitaka), or "basket teachings." This is the most extensive part of the canon. She was devoted to Kutodo 410 plates. It consists of five collections, setting forth the ideology of Buddhism in the form of parables and conversations, which are also attributed to the Buddha or his close disciples. The collection includes Khuddaka-Nikaya 15 books, some of which enjoy particular popularity. Among them, the Dhammapada, which in a short verse said the most important questions of doctrine. Suttanipata contains poems ethical content, etc. Of particular interest Theragatha (Theragatha) and Therigatha (Therigatha), or the chants of monks and nuns - is also one of the oldest works of the canon. It is important for the study of early Buddhism and a collection of Jataka (Jataka), which includes stories about the reincarnation of Buddha. They have the character of moral exhortations emanating from the Buddha himself. Modern science has established that the basis is not the original Buddhist writings and works of Indian folklore, adapted for visual preaching Buddhism. They are important as a source of information about the conditions of social life in ancient India.

Finally, the third part of the canon - the Abhidhamma Pitaka-(Abhidhammapitaka), or "basket explain the teachings (the law)." It is located in Kutodo 208 plates. It consists of seven books of religious and philosophical nature, on account of the development and attributed to the Buddha mind. This is the latest part of the canon. Many of the schools of Buddhism and do not recognize it and the original source of the canon did not include.

Is the idea of ​​religious salvation, the transition from earthly life to nirvana, that is, in some other, unearthly state, indeed the main idea of ​​Buddhism? Sure. Religious Buddhist literature puts into the mouth of the mythical founder of Buddhism, the following words: "Just as the ocean has only one taste - the taste of salt, and my teaching has only one taste - the taste of salvation." All early sources point out that the Buddha preached the necessity and possibility of reaching each other being personal and eternal as opposed to volatility, doom, death of all that we perceive as real, tangible, sensual world. "I'm all-knowing, - says the Buddha to his disciple Upak - I have no teacher, no one is me in the world of gods and men, and no creature like me. I'm holy in this world, I am a teacher, I am one - the Buddha himself absolute . I got the rest (by way of redemption of all the passions) and got nirvana. To establish a kingdom of truth, I'm coming to town Kasis (Benares), I'll beat the drum of immortality in the darkness of this world. " Benares sermon, not without reason, regarded as the first, but it is also the most accurate and complete statement of the main teachings of Buddhism, beginning with the words: "Open your ears, the monks: immortality (Amata) won by me." The entire first sermon - the rationale for the salvation of the suffering of samsara (the world of sense) and opening the way to salvation. The sermon ends with the words: "When my mind can not be lost, and this is my last birth, so I will not be born."

Stressing the importance of disclosing the world the way to salvation in otherness, Mahavagga - the most important part of the most ancient section of the canon of the Vinaya Pitaka, - describes the reaction of the universe at Benares sermon: "... the totality of the ten thousand worlds hesitated, trembled, shuddered, and infinite powerful light penetrated peace, light, surpassing the light that could be produced by the divine power of the devas' (ie the gods).

The idea of ​​the need for religious salvation, leaving samsara constantly, in various embodiments and repeated in other texts, and Vinaya Pitaka Sutta Pitaka-. So, the conversation with the Buddha's monks of the impermanence of the body ends in this conclusion: "... lack of passion makes his (human) free, and when he is freed, he realizes that he is free, and he understands that the new revival of escape, that holiness achieved a complete that the debt is made, and there is no more return to this world. " The main task which must execute people - to achieve salvation from the bondage of the world. It is highlighted that this salvation is not achieved at the time of physical death of the creature. In keeping with an ancient religious tradition Vedic religion, Buddhism accepts unreservedly the doctrine of the transmigration of souls, or, as they say about reincarnation: after this existence after death or after a time living creature comes into a new form of "being", as disgusting, like all previous ones.

Agony, suffering, and domination of evil in advance declared major qualitative characteristics of any being, existence and suffering are identical. Buddhism places the responsibility for the evil of the devil, to justify God, but smogshego a perfect world. The inevitability of evil in the world of the senses Buddhism interprets as a manifestation of a "space" of suffering, eternally inherent in every being.

The greatness and the goodness of the supreme deity, who is due to his personal merit in the former all-perfect reincarnation and all-wise being a Buddha, is not to create peace, and in the path of its destruction, the victory over evil, which is impossible without overcoming of being itself.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



 
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