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The Revelation of the Genius Hazrat
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Poetry and drama
Buddhist and Hindu ideas and topics have stimulated the emergence and further development of the ancient Indian dramaturgy. One of the earliest Buddhist poets and playwrights - Ashvaghosha (I-II century BC), many of the works Ashvaghosha still are not known, but remained in fragments following his poems in Sanskrit: "Buddhacarita" ("Life of Buddha "; know the full text in Chinese and Tibetan translation)," Saundarananda "(" Sundari and Nanda ") and drama" Shariputraprakarana "(" Drama of conversion to Buddhism Sariputra "). Already in ancient India, these works were very popular, and has visited India in the VII. Buddhist pilgrim I-ching wrote that essay, "brings the heart of the reader so much pleasure, that he never tired of constantly repeating" poem "."

"Buddhacarita" and "Shariputraprakarana" devoted purely Buddhist themes and promote the teaching of the Buddha, they are highly poetic and artistic. Ashvaghosha follows the epic tradition and draws a life full of drama and emotions.

His pieces of ancient Indian history reveals Ashvaghosha drama, received a brilliant development in the works Bhasy, Kalidasa, Shudraki and others associated with the name Bhasy 13 plays, but some of them were actually written this great playwright, it's hard to say, Bhasa also used the epic tradition, although His plays are built on already strict laws of drama. Some modern scholars have rightly believe that a number of plays are the oldest samples Bhasy Indian tragedy. It was certainly a bold innovation Bhasy who opposed the established rules. This line continued in the ancient Indian dramaturgy Shudraka, author of the play "Mrichchhakatika" ("Clay wagon"). Here we present a passionate love story of a ruined merchant and Thais.

One of the gems of ancient Indian literature are the works of Kalidasa (end of IV - beginning of V century AD) - poet, playwright, writer, whose work - a bright page in the history of world culture. Translation of drama Kalidasa "Sakuntala" was done the writer Nikolai Karamzin in 1792-1793 years. In the preface to this publication, Nikolai Karamzin wrote that drama has the highest beauty and poetry of the greatest art.

Peru Kalidasa belongs, obviously, a considerable number of works, but so far scientists have three dramas: "Sakuntala" (or "known by the rings of Sakuntala"), "Malyavikagnimitra" ("Malyavika and Agnimitra"), "Vikramorvashi" ("Courage Urvashi") The poem "Meghaduta" ("Cloud - messenger"), and two epic poems: "Kumarasambhava" ("The Birth of Kumara"), and "Raghuvamsha" ("Type of Raghu").

At the heart of all the works of Kalidasa - the image of man with his feelings, worldly cares and joys and sorrows. This is a significant step forward compared to Ashvaghosha, creating an idealized image of the Buddha and his faithful disciples.




INDIAN THEATRE
Theatre originated in India in ancient times, reached its highest peak by the end of the ancient era, the period of Gupta (IV-V cc.), And lasted after two and a half - three centuries, has quickly come to naught. There are two types of theater in ancient India - the literary (the court) and the People, whose repertoire was based on the tales of Indian mythology and epics, audiences are familiar.

The most complex and obscure is the origin of the theater. The Indian tradition associates the beginning of the theater with the legendary name of Bharata, directly inspired by god Brahma: Brahma at the request of the gods decided to create a fifth Veda, accessible to all classes, by connecting the word, Lad, actions and feelings, taken respectively from the Rig Veda, Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda Brahma created and recorded through this Bharata "Veda Dance and Drama" in the "Natyashastra."

Speculated that: a) the dramatic art was borrowed from the Greeks, and b) there is an association of theater with more ancient action that have developed in India itself (though the details of such actions almost did not survive).

None of the proposed theories still do not have sufficient evidence. Currently, the most probable origin of the theater of the two forms of entertainment - and the mysteries of the cult comic impromptu presentation, also emerged on the basis of religious festivities. First of all, a holiday associated with the ritual of fertility, the god Indra.

Celebrated the feast in the rainy season. The central event was the erection of the square was brought from the woods and elegantly decorated tree, which symbolized the banner of Indra and was identified with the god himself. After 5 - 6 days solemnly descended the tree and topilos in the river, in order to transfer land and water contained within its power plant. Victory life-giving forces of nature was to help and all the game side of the holiday. These included the mystery of the action, and entertainment representation. In a number of descriptions of the holiday Indra said that at that time there were contests fighters performances by musicians, jugglers, tightrope walkers, people's Jester (the nut). Nata acted both as dancers, musicians, jugglers, as well as actors entertain the audience little farcical scenes.

Ancient mystery was a dance-pantomimic action. We used the sacred text of the Vedas. At the initial stage of the mysteries were played by professional performers of ritual dances.

Later, a dancer must give place to the actor. In the mystery began to penetrate the coordinates, which had a big advantage in the manner of execution before executing the same. They embraced the tradition of performance mysteriological representation, and this tradition is present in the art of theatrics.

Actors in ancient India occupied a low social status - a jurisprudential treatises they are equal to sudras, and their profession is declared unworthy representatives of the upper classes. According to legend, the actors were cursed for being portrayed in a ridiculous form of holies - the rishis. However, low social status did not prevent the actors to be highly educated people and enjoy the patronage and friendship of nobility.

Dance in its pure form as a separate room, was introduced into the Indian drama rarely. But the shape of the play as a whole was a dance. The reason for that - extreme elaboration of plastic hand, the richness of pantomimic used to create a stage image, above all - highly stylized, often arbitrary, symbolic gesture. Some of these gestures have an affinity with the Vedic sacrificial ritual gestures.

Continuity here is obvious: a ritual dance borrowed the symbolism of the sacrificial rigid ceremony, handed her the mystery of where it was assimilated and then the theater. It should also be borne in mind that the whole performance was accompanied by music, and the subordination of movement actor musical rhythm made it even more danceable.

Period of intensive formation of the theater should be regarded as the second half of 1st millennium BC By the end of this period were to take shape the basic canons of theatrical and literary drama

The theater of the first centuries of our era - it is an independent, highly and extremely popular art. Although the performances are still held in conjunction with the time of religious celebrations, their recreational and aesthetic features to the fore, and the ritual is erased. Representations are given troupes of trained actors, specializing, as a rule, the performance of specific roles. Like the ancient troupe of comedians. Acting troupes were mostly mixed, that is comprised of both men and women, although "Natyashastra" mentions the possibility of execution of female roles, men as well as the existence of a purely female troupes. At the head of the troupe was sutradhara - its owner, served as producer, director and usually also the first actor. Actors are constantly traveling, moving from one place to another. During religious festivals in the city turned out several of these wandering troupes, and was arranged between them is often a contest. Special panel of judges determined the best performance, and rewarded the winners in advance assigned monetary award and a flag.

Representations were given either a special theater room (palace performances), or - more often - in the open air. Theater room is a brick rectangular building, consisting of three parts - the auditorium, stage and behind the scenes dressing room. The building was small (approximately 300 people housed), but relatively high - two-story house. The walls are plastered inside and covered with murals. In the auditorium of parallel rows of long benches placed, built from planks laid on brick base.

Performances went a long time - from several hours to several days. Spectators gathered a lot. They are violently expressed his delight and frustration game actors

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PERSONALITY AND CREATIVITY Kalidas
The lifetime of the famous writer of ancient India established by circumstantial evidence and the only approx. An important milestone was the chronological inscription 473 in Mandasore, imitating the style Kalidasa, but also contains several stanzas borrowed from him. In an inscription of 634 Ayholskoy Kalidas has called a great poet. Virtually no data on the life of this great playwright. It is believed that he was a court poet of King Chandragupta II Vikramaditya. According to legend, Kalidasa was one of the famous "nine gems" that adorned the yard Vikramaditya.

Around the name of the poet has developed an extensive folk tradition, influence and to the literature. Most of the ideas of the poet's life converges on the fact that he was born into a poor family, ignorant shepherd who rose through the divine grace to the position of a recognized poet. Kalidasa as the hero of these tales is moving closer to historical figures, acting much later and generally attributed to him much of what is usually characteristic of a popular folk heroes. Extant numerous legends that developed around his name, saying that the genius of Kalidasa was valued during his lifetime: his extraordinary talent people thought miraculous gift menacing and powerful goddess Kali (Kalidasa in Sanskrit - servant of Kali). In more recent times the name of Kalidasa is assigned in a special sign of honor talented and beloved poets of India, sometimes the writers themselves took this name.

From his works you can get an idea of ​​what Kalidas appreciated his predecessors, but it was a supporter of creative innovation. Creativity Kalidasa diverse genres. Among his works there is a lyric and epic poems such as kavya, and dramatic works. At the heart of all his works - a man of his experience, concerns, joys and sorrows.

Undoubtedly belong Kalidas considered: three Natak "Abhidzhnyanashakuntala" ("Shakuntala"), "Vikramorvashi" ("Courage extracted Urvasi") and "Malavikagnimitra" ("Malyavika and Agnimitra"), two epic poems - "Raghuvansha" ("Type Raghu" ) and "Kumarasambhava" ("The Birth of Kumara") and one lyric - "Meghaduta" ("Cloud Messenger"). He attributed a number of works, but stylistic analysis of convincing evidence against this attribution. Occupies a special place "Kuntaleshvaradautya" ("The Embassy of the king Kuntale"), cited in such a knowledgeable author as Kshemendra, in his treatise "Auchityavicharacharcha" ("The argument about the appropriateness") as belonging to Kalidas. Unknown even the genre of this work, though, suggest that drama.

"Rod Raghu" - epic kavya type consists of 19 songs. It contains the legendary chronicle of the reign of the Solar dynasty of Raghu, this dynasty belonged to the legendary hero of India - King Rama. The main content of the poem - is a story about the life and exploits of Rama, his ancestors and heirs. Grain plot "Raghu Rod" is taken from the epic "Ramayana". In his narrative of the wise and virtuous kings - ancestors and descendants of Rama - Kalidasa as it teaches how to be a noble king. He is convinced that the purpose and meaning of the ruler should be concern for the welfare and prosperity of the citizens of the state. Of great interest is the latter, the nineteenth canto. It gives a description of Kalidasa's reign is not idyllic mythical ruler, but a very real king dissolved Agnivarny. Ignominiously ended the famous race of heroes - Raghu clan.

"The Birth of Kumara" - the plot for this type of poem served as one of kavya mythological traditions of ancient India, the birth of Kumara, the god of war (or Skanda). This epic consists of 17 songs. Kalidas, scientists say, belong only to the first eight. In these eight songs, the poet tells of how the Mind (also known as Sati, Parvati, Gauri, Durga, Kali) won the love of an omnipotent and terrible god Shiva.

Obvious is the fact that the contents of the two epic poems Kalidasa mainly relied on the earlier epic tradition, including the Puranas. It is equally clear that the poet comprehended this wealth of material in the light of modernity and selected that corresponded to his understanding of the past as a lesson for the present and future

"The cloud-messenger" - Kalidasa's poem, which is an outstanding example of ancient Indian poetry: its plot is taken also from Indian mythology. In the first part of the poem genius demigod Yaksha, pining away from home and separated from his beloved, asks a cloud to be a messenger for a sweet wife. This part of the poem describes the way the clouds of central India to the snowy heights of the Himalayas. In the second part tells of a fairy-tale, happy kingdom of the god of wealth - Coover, who was ousted from the Yaksha and where the remains of his wife. Goes on to great sorrow dear wife Yakshi separated from loved ones

"Courage extracted Urvasi" - second story of the drama Kalidasa taken from Indian mythology. It is dedicated to the history of the mutual love of celestial nymph (Apsaras) Urvasi and King Pururavasa. Love makes the inhabitant of the heavens descend to earth to become the wife of a mortal man. In this drama of love apsara suffers and is tormented by jealousy, like an ordinary woman. Nebozhitelnitsa Urvasi prefers earthly life with a loved one stay in the sky in the society of the gods

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Cosmology of Buddhism
The practice of the Bodhisattva





Drama Kalidasa "Shakuntala"
ssmotrim drama "Shakuntala" - the most famous drama Kalidasa. And an ancient tradition and modern literary criticism see it as the top of his poetry as the best work of ancient Indian drama as a whole. Some researchers believe this drama last work Kalidasa.

The material is taken drama Kalidasa, translated K. Balmont. Drama consists of seven parts. The first four steps occur in the forest wilderness, the fifth and sixth - in the royal palace, the seventh - on the celestial mountain. Time, occurring in all seven of action for seven years. The drama involved about 30 characters.

In "SHAKUNTALA" Kalidasa used ancient myth, in the form of a complete narrative met for the first time in the "Mahabharata", but was mentioned in the Brahmanas. In the myth Dushianta king, hunting in the woods, gets to the abode of a hermit canvas, comes in contact with his pupil, and then leaves. When Shakuntala with a six-year son is already a Dushiante, he abandons her, and she angrily threw his child away. However, the voice over tells Dushiante to recognize his wife and son, and he returns SHAKUNTALA, explaining that he wanted to just try it.

Keeping the main events of the myth, Kalidas at the same time completely different building separation characters in the drama by introducing the motif and the curse of the lost ring. Leaving the monastery in the capital, where his duties called sovereign, and not being able to bring SHAKUNTALA without the consent of the adoptive father, who is absent, leaving the memory Dushianta SHAKUNTALA ring seal. He has no time to retire, as in the famous ascetic monastery appears Durvasas. Shakuntala occupied by sad thoughts about who went to the king who does not see it coming and he curses her in anger because she violated the custom of hospitality: the king would forget her, as she forgot her duties hostess, and remember, only when they see the ring.

So - forget Dushianta SHAKUNTALA to forget at once, from this point. And when the hermit led him SHAKUNTALA, there is irreparable - it does not recognize it, especially since the ring on her no, she lost him. Apsaras SHAKUNTALA carry out of the palace, and only after a long time fisherman found the ring return the king of memory, and with it, and sad repentance.

Damn, introduced into the plot Kalidas myth and radically alter the relationship and meaning of events. This motif is borrowed from the epic. In the epic (the "Mahabharata"), all unforeseen, unexpected, unexplained, including the degeneration and death, usually motivated by the curses of the sages, ascetics. Curse these have power even over the gods and their function in this enduring power, reigning over all, and determining the course of events, to be equivalent to the very fate. But, I think, incorrect to conduct Dushianty, as some researchers, due to wounded vanity and revenge. Heroes' SHAKUNTALA "asunder not disregard the king is not treason, but something that stands above them and dumped them as undeserved punishment. Hermit Durvasas carries the law of karma. It is likely that Shakuntala Dushianta or in one of his previous life have done something unworthy, and therefore appeared in full the law of karma - the law of Retribution - The law of cause and effect, or moral reasons. There is the Karma of merit and karma defect. Karma neither punishes nor rewards, it is simply a universal law, and correctly, as it were, blindly guiding all other laws, producing some results along the lines of the reasons therefor.

The king, after the memory returns to him, suffering, truth, remorse, repentance, but that many complaints about the unfairness of fate, the ring that is so, "summed up" his hands slipped from SHAKUNTALA. But there is no fault in what the king, but because it is not plagued by pangs of conscience. In the last act of the divine mouth of the sage Kasiapy explaining what had happened, the king of wines solemnly removed, and both of them - and Dushianta and Shakuntala - happy with it. The lack of tension in the knowledge of his guilt robs the characters of the tragic drama of sound, and as a result it is closer to melodrama than a tragedy. Therein lies the main difference between Indian classical drama of the European: there is no conflict in the European sense of the word. According to Indian notions, all of man's fate is predetermined, and therefore wrong to complain about it is useless. For the same and so unusual finale of the drama - the final words Dushianty. In his prayer, he hoped that he would not be born.

If we consider the drama "Shakuntala" in terms of parsing it to identify the cultural characteristics of ancient India, one can find many references to extraordinary rites, customs and other cultural traditions of this country. For example, at the beginning of the drama "Shakuntala" king Dushianta concerned the origin of his favorite, because if it was not the same caste, and that he then link them would be impossible and illegal. It was impossible to marry the people belonging to different varnam. Of course, permitted marriage between a man with a woman of lower caste, but the marriage was not considered virtuous.

So what is caste? All people (except for slaves, which was not considered for men) in ancient India were divided into four classes that had the character of the caste: Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishyas and Sudras. The first two were the aristocracy of Ayurveda, vaisyas are full freemen, Shudras were the lowest of the unequal social group. The traditional occupation of the Brahmins was the performance of priestly functions, Kshatriyas - military, Vaishyas - agriculture, animal husbandry, trade, Shudra - work on the three higher caste (service, craft, wage labor





And MALYAVIKA AGNIMITRA "
The second product - the drama "Malyavika and Agnimitra." This is a typical Natick, depicting the court and vnutridvortsovoy life, love and conflicts, etc. Drama consists of five actions. The drama involved 20 characters.

The plot of the drama is very simple. Very amorous king falls in love with a dancer Agnimitra Malyaviku. Love is mutual, but the obstacles in love with an older woman uchinyaet Agnimitry - Dgarini. Love of two young men overcame all the obstacles, and lawful manner, but because at the end of the drama everyone is happy. Drama is famous for its humorous content - refinements Gautama, the breastplate king to help Agnimitre in love affairs.

The focus of this work, given the theme of love. Along with the main theme of the show through other, less interesting. For example, much space is devoted to dance. Here there is a scene of two contests the court choreographers. Not surprisingly, wins Malyavika, because she is - the embodiment of dance. In drama there is a brief description of the canon of dance.

We had:

The whole body seemed to say,

There was a picturesque point of the game,

The dimension of the observed leg

There was a feeling found the right path.

Exquisitely hand movement was,

Pauses due to a turn,

Following a sense of feeling is allocated,

All the passion to an extreme level.

This description says the special importance of dance in the Indian consciousness.

Significant place in the drama focused on the problem of the family. Old Indian families were mostly monogamous. Polygamous marriage could only afford a noble and rich people, in particular the king. A striking example of polygamy, we see in the drama "Malyavika and Agnimitra." In Agnimitry had two wives: Dgarini and Iravati. At the end of the drama and he got the third - Malyavikoy. In the drama in some way solve the problem of adultery. An example of the Kings - an example of the people. This idea of ​​forgiveness, love, understanding, feelings and desires of her beloved husband the other wives.

Naturally, the family in ancient India were patriarchal. The head of the family the right of deciding the issue, take him second or third wife or not. Also, he was entitled to absolute obedience of all family members and respectful attitude.

The main and essential condition for the two dramas is the presence of the gods, but not direct but indirect. People do not communicate with them, but always remember them.

In the drama "Shakuntala," most states of the god of thunder Indra. It is the god of the Firmament, King of the stellar gods, lord of the east. As well as the god of fertility. Nebo, where he reigns, is called Svarga, and its capital - Amaravati, his battle elephant - Ayravata his charioteer - Matali. Of his many epithets, names the most encountered: "Great Indra," "generous," "Tame Asura Pak", "Destroyer of Cities", "Mighty", "bat in your hand", etc.

Since the drama "Malyavika and Agnimitra" devoted to dance and dance, the main deity is Shiva in it. It is known that Kalidasa was a supporter of one of shivaistskih trends in Hinduism.

Shiva - one of the chief gods of the Hindu pantheon. He is depicted with a third eye on his forehead, on his forehead - a crescent moon, symbol of time. In hair in a symbolic representation of Lord Shiva Ganga. He also represented with one or five faces and four arms, one of which he holds a horn in the other - a trident, in the third - a drum, and the fourth is depicted in a gesture symbolizing the gift. His neck blue - a consequence of the fact that he had swallowed a poison that could destroy the entire world.

Shiva is uninitiated in eight forms: Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Space, Sun, Moon, a priest who sacrifices

Eight bodies high lords:

The first one created, Water,

Victim commits, Flame,

Priest, in a solid form his own,

Sun and Moon, that time is divided,

Sound way, comprehensive Ether.

And the earth, where the seed of all life,

And the breath of those who breathe the air.

In eight of these emerging,

God be merciful lord.

In essence, Shiva - the god-destroyer, but it destroys only to revive at a higher level. He is the patron of yogis and has a lot of titles and epithets: "the one whose light in space," "he whose thought on every brow." "Rich hanging fruit" - or the one who brings plenty of fruit as a sacrifice, the epithet may have caused the initial bond of Shiva with a fertility cult. "King of the world," "Wealth sowed everywhere," "zealots of all surpassed," "arrogance at all deprived."

An important place in the religious system of Saivism is a representation of the cosmic dance of Shiva. His dance creates and destroys worlds. He advocates the patron of music and the "king of the dance" (Nataraja). In the Puranas says that dance is an essential part of the ritual shivaistskogo. "Dance of Shiva", a violent and ecstatic, indicates the presence of his cult of shamanistic elements.

I wonder how worship Shiva in India. In Treviskare pagoda dedicated to Lord Shiva, is a granite pedestal, a column of the pedestal is decorated with a bowl in the center of which rises a lingam, the length of 3 feet. Bowl, with a long slit in the middle, depicts woman's genitals. On this sacred stone priests dedicate devadash, dancers God in the mysteries of love. Dancers who participate in this cult are at the same time and priestesses. At noon, the priestesses of the sacred lingam is decorated with garlands and sandalnym tree. Then they take a bath in preparation for an upcoming worship. The cult of the serpent priests replaced by women. They wear the lingam, surrounded by two serpents, for river bank. There, they bathe, wash their idol, and burnt wood, pre-destined for sacrifice. Then they pray, asking for wealth, many children and long life for their husbands. Any fan of Lord Shiva obliged daily to pay their reverence for the lingam, pouring milk on him. It is carefully preserved, it is given to the dying man so that he entered the Kailosson, ie in the Indian paradise. Badlands indiyanki relate their genitals end of the holy lingam, in order to be able to bear children. In the vicinity of the bride usually brings Pendizhara his virginity to sacrifice a god. In some parts of India, the priests perform the duties of the gods.

No less interesting is the wife of Shiva, the goddess Durga. In general, the wife of Shiva has many names: Parvati, Kali, Uma, Gauri, etc. It transforms all the time. Each of its name indicates, in a role she performed at this time. For example, Kali in Sanskrit means "black" and symbolizes evil and wickedness. In this dark incarnation of Shiva's wife has acquired a terrible look, bared witch. Mnogorukaya, stunning murder weapons, rides it to the fierce lion, causing death and destruction. Here are its other names: Durga - "unattainable", "inaccessible" Uma - "light," Gauri - "white," Chandi - "fierce", Parvati - "Daughter of the Mountains", Satie - "virtuous." Shiva's wife, was also the goddess and protectress, marital happiness of women (in her gracious incarnation Gauri). Heroes of the drama "Malyavika and Agnimitra" hope:

Wife of Lord Shiva, Durga, peace be upon

Smiling and supportive to us.

In the esoteric symbolism of Kali is the dual of the dual representative of the soul - the divine and human, light and dark soul of a human soul. Also Cali - Women power of God, the feminine aspect of Shiva. Shiva is sometimes depicted as a single unit with his wife. The Indians placed next to the Kali Shiva: their characters are mostly phallus and Kteis.

The history tells about how Shiva fell in love with Parvati. Parvati Shiva loved so much, that she decided to indulge in the same ascetic feats, as well as her future husband. Prior to that, Shiva did not even want to see her, but then he was shocked by the dedication of Parvati, and told her to love with love.

One Indian sect worships Shiva's wife in the role Sakta. The wife of any of those present is a goddess Sakta. Naked put her on the altar and one of the participants by coitus'a it does identify victims. The ceremony ends with the fact that all men impregnate women, and each pair represents Shiva and Sakta. The believer should commit this act of going up my thoughts to a deity and not trying to satisfy their sensual passions. The tenets of this sect represent a lofty, almost ascetic morality.

Kama (Kamadeva) - not less important god in the drama Kalidasa. It is the god of love of Indian mythology, in many ways similar to ancient Eros, was depicted armed with bow (from the stalks of sugar cane) with floral arrows. His bow stringer - buzzing bees. Mango flower is considered one of the five arrows of love Kama (Kama - "pyatistrelny god of love"). Purpose of Kama - pierce the hearts of mortals and celestial beings, instilling in them a love.

About as tough as he and affectionate

Your floriferous accurate bow

You - our gentle stabbing

And the generation of bitter anguish.

Flower boom your

And the cut and inject, and tow

According to legend, Lord Shiva incinerated Kama for the fact that he interrupted his pious contemplation, instilling a passion for Parvati. So Cam is incorporeal

The original "Vedic" Kama symbolized the divine desire for happiness and love of creation, embracing first conscious desire of universal good, love to all that lives and feels, needs help and kindness, the first feeling of infinite tender compassion and mercy. Subsequently, the god of love symbolized evil desire, lust, desire. "The mighty god of love, you fasten our desires without thoughts about obstacles, and blast your so hot that your office can not stand and wait one minute" (from "Malyaviki and Agnimitry").

In the original "SHAKUNTALA" Anasuya says when he hears about the free and SHAKUNTALA Dushianty marriage: "Let the Kama now enjoys." It was thought that Cam is a special pleasure in the seduction of young virgins.

Kama is accompanied by his wife Rati (passion). On the banner of Kama shows a sea monster Makara - his means of transportation (other than a parrot.)

Opening speeches against religion
Doreligioznaya era
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Orthodoxy
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Seven periods of the history of Christianity
Birth rannebuddistskoy Sangha in India
Cosmology of Buddhism
The practice of the Bodhisattva
 
BUDDHISM IN ARCHITECTURE
The Art of Buddhism is very different from the art of Christian nations. Buddhist ideas about illusion of life and all earthly things, of endless rebirths and others embodied in the Buddhist mythology, folk tales and parables, in philosophical treatises, in music, plastic arts and religious architecture.

The essence of Buddhist teaching is reflected, for example, sculptures of Buddha, which varied depending on the type of national culture, age and taste of society. The face of the Great Teacher - being who has reached the highest limit of spiritual development - radiates piety and serenity, calmness, his hand raised in blessing and teaching. Buddhist art has developed a complex symbolism of hands and fingers, according to which every gesture has a certain value. System of conventional gestures and poses existed in the ritual temple dances, which made it possible to realize the believers worship, mime, literally "reading through" it, like reading an ordinary book.

From the descriptions of Greek is known for its magnificence Megasthenes storey wooden palace of King Ashoka. The interior of the palace were decorated with granite columns, sculptures and carvings. At Ashoka, Buddhism became the state religion, but the king continued to prohibit construction of buildings made of stone. Civic buildings, like temples, built of wood, and they have not survived. The spread of Buddhism led to the construction of numerous churches and cathedrals. Just when Ashoka was erected about 80 thousand stupas - memorial structure that holds the remains of the Buddha. The word stupa in Sanskrit means top, top. Thus in ancient India were called tombs.

Originally stupa was a mound containing the remains of a holy man or objects associated with his life. Through the centuries transformed itself into a high stupa monuments with spikes resembling the temples of Thailand, Sri Lanka, Korea and Japan. In Buddhism, it became a symbol of the universe, is schematically expressed by the step structure of the stupa. Stupa symbolizes universal mount Sumeru. Architecture stupa may vary from country to country, but are always five of its parts: the base of the stairs (steps), dome (hemisphere) spire and pommel. In Buddhism, these parts of the stupa are mapped to different values. For example, according to the five primary elements: base related to the element of Earth; staircase - with water, the dome - with fire; spire - the element of wind (air) backplate - with space. Or other relation: the base - the defilements of the mind; staircase and the dome - the beginning of the path to enlightenment of the mind; spire - the state of a bodhisattva, pommel - the state of Buddhahood.

Thus, the stupa is also a symbol of the enlightened mind of Buddha. In Buddhist texts it is mentioned that after the cremation of the body of the Buddha his remains were divided into eight parts, each of which was placed in a special mortar. These relics are the object of worship of Buddhists.

Stupas reflect the model of the universe, it is characterized by majestic simplicity and perfection of form. Indian stupa, slightly different, and penetrated into other countries. Considered one of the oldest stupa at Sanchi (Central India, 250 BC). It is a circular structure, having the outside shape of a hemisphere, which is surmounted by a rod with disks - "umbrellas", representing the level of knowledge on the road to nirvana. Gate - two stone pillars, connected by beams, which are decorated with reliefs depicting scenes from the "Mahabharata" and the life of Buddha. At the top of the crossbar shown in adoration of the sacred fig tree, elephants, under which the Buddha preached his first sermon, the second beam is the worship of Buddhist symbols. The third - a meeting of Gautama the hermit who opened his eyes to the human sorrow and suffering. Inside the stupa is a chamber for storing urns with ashes and other relics.

There was widespread in India have stambhi - Buddhist and Hindu memorable columns, ending with figures of animals. In the valley of the Ganges near Benares was Gazelles Park. According to legend, it is here that Buddha preached his first sermon in memory, which in the III. BC and was erected a pillar with a "Lion's capitol." Today on stambhi only stayed a capital of polished sandstone to shine, which is the inverted lotus - a symbol of purity motives - with four half-figures of lions. Abaca (plate on the capitals) is decorated with relief figures of the elephant, lion, horse and bull, symbolizing the four cardinal points. Between the shapes of animals shows "Wheel of Law", symbolizing the Buddha's teachings. When in 1947 India gained independence, the "lion's capitol" became the national emblem, and "Wheel of Law" (called now the "Wheel of Progress") is placed on the national flag.

Another kind of religious monuments of Buddhism Chaitya-rock temples (the symbol of the solitary life of the Buddha). According to legend, the Buddha, who called his disciples away from the bustle of the world, read his homily in silence - under a tree or on the edge of the desert. His pupils were found monasteries in the mountains, cutting rocks in this cave, some of which were turned into churches ("Chaitya"), or monks' cells ("vihara"), it is they have developed science and art. In the monasteries created many images of bodhisattvas - forever young beings who have attained the highest level of holiness, have dedicated their lives to people who are trying to find a way to salvation. Cave architecture of India (from the III. BC to the X century AD.) - The greatest phenomenon of world art and architecture, which simultaneously synthesized architecture, sculpture, decorative arts and murals. Today in India there are about 1200 of these cave structures.

The most well-preserved complex of Ajanta, which consists of 29 caves, carved over a steep bank of the river Vaghora. The facades are decorated cave temples statues of Buddha and his disciples, carved from a single array of rock. Wonderful caves and paintings, reproducing scenes and biographies of the Buddha's previous incarnations of the Great Teacher. Often they are treated as the scene of court life: the princes in luxury rooms hugging wives, receive visitors, go hunting or war. Here you can see images of the streets of ancient cities, the people standing in the balconies, utensils, wagons. Among the paintings is particularly notable adzhantskih image "Bodhisattva with a lotus."


DEVELOPMENT Buddha
In the early centuries of Buddhist art does not meet any of the anthropomorphic images of Buddha. In scenes that tell of his previous existences, no images of the Buddha in human form - it appears in the guise of a deer or other animal. When illustrated by an episode from his past existence - in the form of Shakyamuni, the characters are used, such as an empty throne, stupa or tree, the most popular characters have continued to include in the composition, even after an image of the Buddha.

The traditional absence of human images of the Buddha is explained by the fact that it affected the early trends in preferences of allegorical images of a specific image, that is the most important figures filling the logo or symbol, just as the early Christians represented a cross instead of Christ. Later it has been suggested that such images of trees or the throne may actually be a place of worship, more related to the Buddha himself, than to any special event, and therefore did not require his presence in the real or figurative form. Undoubtedly, the pilgrimage was an integral part of Buddhist practice in all the lands covered by Buddhism, and many of these images could also celebrate the holy places, continuing initiative of King Ashoka, who visited many of these sites and enhance their prestige with numerous gifts and patronage rendered. It is not known whether these early images of allegorical depictions of the Buddha - and, it seems, most of them were not, but the absence of anthropomorphic images of Buddha during the first 150 years of the art of Buddhism is evident.

The debate about when and where there are the first images of the Buddha, was resolved in favor of the II century by a margin of a few votes. You can draw the following conclusions by the end of III century BC. Oe. already knew about the anthropomorphic images, and the first such images of the Buddha are the I century BC. Oe. Sources of the figurative style in India, it united the ancient yogis and meditative ideal early yakshas images, such as those that can be seen on the stupa at Sanchi and Bharhute. Based on the characteristics of Buddhist sects, the mainstay of Sarvastivadinov the north-west and parts of the lower Himalayas (modern Pakistan and Kashmir) may have been among the first regions where there are anthropomorphic images of Buddha. Their establishment is also associated with a traditional Buddhist and a desire to increase services. And in this case by creating a sculpture or painting services multiplied not only one person, but his ancestors and relatives. While the mendicant monks and pious priests used visual images are extremely rare, lay followers need in the initial management and in the ongoing visual reminder of the doctrine, which they followed. Therefore, it is a secular patronage was the driving force for the greater part of Buddhist art.

Because of the lack of direct Hindu prototype is the development can be seen as an inevitable result of a process that began with the Ashoka pillars, and continued the narrative reliefs depicting Jataka stories and the life of Buddha, stupas on the gate and, finally, innumerable images of male and female fertility. They embody the fertility figures took an especially important position during the Kushan Empire (the end of I century BC. Oe. - End of III century BC. Oe.), Sometimes they are portrayed as independent figures of a man, but most in relief on the carved pillars and beams stupa. The depth of the relief, curvaceous and beautiful detail of these sculptures, placing them on top of Indian sculpture. They - an illustration of practice, widespread in Indian art, when each of the major religions use such images as the defenders and an emblem of plenty, perhaps as a reminder of the world's earthly pleasures. The most spectacular example of early female figure, almost sculpture in the round - a famous girl with Chori (a type of vanes or panicles of flies) from Didargandzha about Pataliputra (modern Patna, Bihar). This sculpture is polished to a shine, originally a figure of enormous side of the triad - the largest and most beautiful lines in these women's images, which runs from Bharhuta and Sanchi. Image Yakshin always occupied an important place in Indian art, but such forms of sensuality, but there is still multiplied by polishing the stone, for these gorgeous women of Buddhist art is still a rarity, even in spite of a direct Indian influence. It is equally strong, although noticeably less sensible, there were images of men - yakshas. These monumental representation of abundance for the first time appeared on the pylons early stupas, and the Kushan dynasty to the period they have become almost circular freestanding sculpture, representing both individual deities, and their satellites. They are ideal for subsequent images of the Buddhist pantheon, including Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

Deepened by the separation of religion from which emerged the school of Mahayana has increased the need for additional images, and, in addition, this process contributed to the political and cultural changes associated with the migration of peoples into new territories, especially the people of the Central Asian Kushan.

Kushan Empire was centered around two centers: one in the area of ​​Mathura in the north-central India around Agra and the other in Gandhara. In Mathura, there were statues of Buddha, made of sandstone, very similar in style yaksham carved on the pylons in Bharhute and Sanchi. These figures, with their broad shoulders and simplified forms, still belong to the Indus tradition, imprinted in the stone ideals of Yoga - the man regarded as the keeper of "the breath of life", so the sculpture is more than just a visual replica of the physical body. These characteristics are sublime detachment have been described in earlier scriptures, and they can still be seen in the figures of saints, and devoted themselves to meditation, which sit along the river banks and in sanctuaries across India. In the early literature and described the attributes of the Buddha, called lakshany like ushnisha, the bulge on the crown of "lion" body ... - A total of 32 feature. It was just a visual way to distinguish the image of the Buddha among others. Despite the subsequent addition of the halo and halo and fantastic attributes, such as webbed fingers and early images of the Buddha preserved human features, harmoniously combining the miraculous hand of divinity with the body mortal. In fact, his divinity was further underlined by the fact that Dietrich shekel (Seckel), a formidable scholar of Buddhism, called "negative style" when removed various decorative elements, in contrast to the numerous other characters, ornate Buddhist pantheon.

At the same time in the northern region of Gandhara, where Alexander the Great ended his eastern campaign, there was another stylistic version of the Buddha. These figures emerged from the campaigns of Alexander: Provincial classic styles of the Roman colonies, spread by trade routes between East and West and reached the north of the region, influencing the cultural life - from building cities to mint coins. Although the art of Gandhara remains outside the main development in India, its location at the foot of the Himalayas led to the fact that it is this region provided the impetus for the development of Buddhist art in Central Asia.

Indian Buddha is depicted in the traditional pose of a meditating yogi, sublime in his mental strength, and yet still being part of this world with their land, massive forms, transferred to a deep unpolished sandstone. At the same time, he sits on a background of images of radiance and abundance, the solar disk and the tree and the throne supported by lions, the symbol of his royal descent. Although the lion throne, and the two satellites emphasize his royal position, posture yoga, modest clothing and gesture representations embody the spiritual nature of his message. This image has become an important source for all subsequent images of the Buddha throughout Asia, including celestial Buddhas of the higher realms, far from all earthly things. Buddhist art has retained the ability to consistently adhere to the original simplicity of this way: even when he was surrounded by a series of figures, representing the richness and abundance, the effect was maintained by connecting the earth with the splendor of the heavenly poverty awards
 


IMAGES Bodhisattva
In the early period of the Buddha is often depicted with a pair of bodhisattvas (enlightened beings), around many of whom later formed their own cults. The most characteristic features of bodhisattvas have luxurious robes and ornaments, as they acted as a symbol of wealth and abundance, in contrast to just wearing a Buddha - the antithesis of material values. In addition to many items and jewelry bodhisattvas were used to identify them. Therefore, the future Buddha Maitreya in the crown is a picture of a stupa in the accompanying Bodhisattvas other attributes, such as holding a vajra Vajrapani, Avalokiteshvara - the lotus, in addition, his crown is an image of a seated Buddha. Very soon, these figures are independent objects of worship, for example, Avalokitesvara acted as the protector of travelers, the savior of souls, and, eventually, became identified with the ruling dynasties. Maitreya has acquired a special status - he prayed for his future, hoping to be reborn in paradise.

Bodhisattva played several key roles in the Buddhist doctrine. In the first place they were seen as pious person, possessing many merits, karma came close to the essence of the Buddha. In an effort to gain merit a bodhisattva, but not for himself but for others, believers have acted honorably and thus likened to bodhisattvas. Due to the fact that stressed the ultimate goal - salvation and the role of bodhisattvas as a model and a source of additional merit once these secondary figures very quickly occupied the central position in the pantheon and often become even more important than the historical Buddha, who had remained remote and less accessible, significantly than the magnificent figures of bodhisattvas.

With the increasing role and importance of bodhisattvas, the corresponding changes occurred with the image of the Buddha. Mahayana doctrine required the images are not limited only to human dimensions, supramundane figure is at the top of Mount Meru and associated with the heavens - this heavenly images of the Buddha. Unlike countries where the dominant influence of Theravada, such as Burma, Sri Lanka and parts of Southeast Asia, where a single figure of the historical Buddha was central in the imagery of Northern Buddhism began to emphasize the importance of celestial Buddhas. Four held heavens surrounding the central deity, the Buddha Vairochana that embodies the absolute universe. This change occurred in the early I millennium, with the advent of the colossal statues of Buddha in India, such as in Kanheri and spread in all the northern Buddhist countries from Afghanistan to Japan.
 
 






 









 
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